The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.05 - May (2012 vol.11)
pp: 849-864
Toch Iwuchukwu , Nokia Research Center, Palo Alto
Quinn Jacobson , Nokia Research Center, Palo Alto
Daniel Work , University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley
Alexandre M. Bayen , University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley
Ryan Herring , University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley
Juan Carlos Herrera , University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley
Marco Gruteser , Rutgers University, North Brunswick
Murali Annavaram , University of Southern California, Los Angeles
Jeff Ban , Rensselaer Polytechnique Institute, Troy
Traffic monitoring using probe vehicles with GPS receivers promises significant improvements in cost, coverage, and accuracy over dedicated infrastructure systems. Current approaches, however, raise privacy concerns because they require participants to reveal their positions to an external traffic monitoring server. To address this challenge, we describe a system based on virtual trip lines and an associated cloaking technique, followed by another system design in which we relax the privacy requirements to maximize the accuracy of real-time traffic estimation. We introduce virtual trip lines which are geographic markers that indicate where vehicles should provide speed updates. These markers are placed to avoid specific privacy sensitive locations. They also allow aggregating and cloaking several location updates based on trip line identifiers, without knowing the actual geographic locations of these trip lines. Thus, they facilitate the design of a distributed architecture, in which no single entity has a complete knowledge of probe identities and fine-grained location information. We have implemented the system with GPS smartphone clients and conducted a controlled experiment with 100 phone-equipped drivers circling a highway segment, which was later extended into a year-long public deployment.
Algorithms, design, experimentation, security, privacy, GPS, traffic, data integrity.
Toch Iwuchukwu, Quinn Jacobson, Daniel Work, Alexandre M. Bayen, Ryan Herring, Juan Carlos Herrera, Marco Gruteser, Murali Annavaram, Jeff Ban, "Enhancing Privacy and Accuracy in Probe Vehicle-Based Traffic Monitoring via Virtual Trip Lines", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.11, no. 5, pp. 849-864, May 2012, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.116
[1] http:/, 2011.
[2], 2011.
[3] http:/, 2011.
[4] , 2011.
[5] TeleNav, http:/, 2004.
[6] Inrix, http:/, 2006.
[7] Google Maps,, 2011.
[8] Waze, http:/, 2009.
[9] A. Beresford and F. Stajano, "Mix Zones: User Privacy in Location-Aware Services," Proc. IEEE Ann. Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. Workshop, 2004.
[10] C. Claudel and A.A. Bayen, "Lax-Hopf Based Incorporation of Internal Boundary Conditions into Hamilton-Jacobi Equation. Part II: Computational Methods," IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1158-1174, May 2010.
[11] C. Claudel and A. Bayen, "Lax-hopf Based Incorporation of Internal Boundary Conditions into Hamilton-Jacobi Equation. Part I: Theory," IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1142-1157, May 2010.
[12] X. Dai, M. Ferman, and R. Roesser, "A Simulation Evaluation of a Real-Time Traffic Information System Using Probe Vehicles," Proc. IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), pp. 475-480, Oct. 2003.
[13] G. Evensen, Data Assimilation: The Ensemble Kalman Filter. Springer-Verlag, 2007.
[14] M. Ferman, D. Blumenfeld, and X. Dai, "A Simple Analytical Model of a Probe-Based Traffic Information System," Proc. IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), pp. 263-268, 2003.
[15] C. Furtlehner, J.M. Lasgouttes, and A.D.L. Fortelle, "A Belief Propagation Approach to Traffic Prediction Using Probe Vehicles," Proc. IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Conf., pp. 1022-1027, 2007.
[16] B. Gedik and L. Liu, "Location Privacy in Mobile Systems: A Personalized Anonymization Model," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pp. 620-629, 2005.
[17] N. Geroliminis and C. Daganzo, "Macroscopic Modeling of Traffic in Cities," Proc. 86th Ann. Meeting Transportation Research Board (TRB), 2007.
[18] P. Gilbert, L.P. Cox, J. Jung, and D. Wetherall, "Toward Trustworthy Mobile Sensing," Proc. ACM 11th Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (HotMobile), pp. 31-36, 2010.
[19] L. Greenemeier, E. Malykhina, P. McGougall, A. Ricadela, and M.K. McGee, "The High Cost of Data Loss," http://www. 183700367 , Mar. 2006.
[20] M. Gruteser and D. Grunwald, "Anonymous Usage of Location-Based Services through Spatial and Temporal Cloaking," Proc. ACM MobiSys, 2003.
[21] M. Gruteser and B. Hoh, "On the Anonymity of Periodic Location Samples," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Security in Pervasive Computing, 2005.
[22] J.-C. Herrera, D. Work, R. Herring, J. Ban, Q. Jacobson, and A. Bayen, "Evaluation of Traffic Data Obtained via GPS-Enabled Mobile Phones: The Mobile Century Experiment," Transportation Research Part C, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 568-583, 2009.
[23] R. Herring, A. Hofleitner, S. Amin, T.A. Nasr, A.A. Khalek, P. Abbeel, and A. Bayen, "Using Mobile Phones to Forecast Arterial Traffic through Statistical Learning," Proc. 89th Ann. Meeting Transportation Research Board (TRB), 2010.
[24] A. Hofleitner, R. Herring, T. Hunter, P. Abbeel, and A. Bayen, "A Learning and Estimation Approach Towards Arterial Traffic Monitoring," Rev., 2010.
[25] B. Hoh, M. Gruteser, R. Herring, J. Ban, D. Work, J.-C. Herrera, A. Bayen, M. Annavaram, and Q. Jacobson, "Virtual Trip Lines for Distributed Privacy-Preserving Traffic Monitoring," Proc. ACM MobiSys, pp. 15-28, 2008.
[26] B. Hoh, M. Gruteser, H. Xiong, and A. Alrabady, "Enhancing Security and Privacy in Traffic-Monitoring Systems," IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 38-46, Oct.-Dec. 2006.
[27] B. Hoh, M. Gruteser, H. Xiong, and A. Alrabady, "Preserving Privacy in GPS Traces via Uncertainty-Aware Path Cloaking," Proc. ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS), Oct. 2007.
[28] B. Hull, V. Bychkovsky, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, M. Goraczko, A.K. Miu, E. Shih, H. Balakrishnan, and S. Madden, "CarTel: A Distributed Mobile Sensor Computing System," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2006.
[29] T. Jiang, H. Wang, and Y.-C. Hu, "Preserving Location Privacy in Wireless Lans," Proc. ACM MobiSys, 2007.
[30] P. Kalnis, G. Ghinita, K. Mouratidis, and D. Papadias, "Preventing Location-Based Identity Inference in Anonymous Spatial Queries," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1719-1733, Dec. 2007.
[31] J. Krumm, "Inference Attacks on Location Tracks," Proc. Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing (Pervasive), 2007.
[32] M. Lighthill and G. Whitham, "On Kinematic Waves. II. A Theory of Traffic Flow on Long Crowded Roads," Proc. Royal Soc. of London. Series A, Math. and Physical Sciences, vol. 229, no. 1178, pp. 317-345, 1955.
[33] J. Lite, "Obama's Cell Phone Hacked, Privacy Issues Murky," , 2008.
[34] A. Machanavajjhala, J. Gehrke, D. Kifer, and M. Venkitasubramaniam, "l-Diversity: Privacy beyond k-Anonymity," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE), p. 24, 2006.
[35] T. Park and S. Lee, "A Bayesian Approach for Estimating Link Travel Time on Urban Arterial Road Network," Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Science Application (ICCSA), pp. 1017-1025, 2004.
[36] D. Reid, "An Algorithm for Tracking Multiple Targets," IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 843-854, Dec. 1979.
[37] P.I. Richards, "Shock Waves on the Highway," Operations Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 42-51, 1956.
[38] S. Saroiu and A. Wolman, "I am a Sensor, and I Approve this Message," Proc. ACM 11th Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (HotMobile), pp. 31-36, 2010.
[39] A. Skabardonis and N. Geroliminis, "Real-Time Estimation of Travel Times on Signalized Arterials," Proc. 16th Int'l Symp. Transportation and Traffic Theory, Univ. of Maryland, July 2005.
[40] L. Sweeney, "Achieving $k$ -Anonymity Privacy Protection Using Generalization and Suppression," Int'l J. Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 571-588, 2002.
[41] B. Wiedersheim, Z. Ma, F. Kargl, and P. Papadimitratos, "Privacy in Inter-Vehicular Networks: Why Simple Pseudonym Change Is Not Enough," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Wireless On-Demand Network Systems and Services (WONS), pp. 176-183, 2010.
[42] D.B. Work, S. Blandin, O.-P. Tossavainen, B. Piccoli, and A.M. Bayen, "A Traffic Model for Velocity Data Assimilation," Applied Math. Research Express, vol. 2010, no. 1, pp. 1-35, 2010.
43 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool