This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Secure Cooperative Sensing in IEEE 802.22 WRANs Using Shadow Fading Correlation
October 2011 (vol. 10 no. 10)
pp. 1434-1447
Alexander W. Min, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Kang G. Shin, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Xin Hu, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Cooperative (or distributed) sensing has been recognized as a viable means to enhance the incumbent signal detection by exploiting the diversity of sensors. However, it is challenging to secure such distributed sensing due mainly to the unique features of dynamic spectrum access networks—openness of low-layer protocol stacks in software-defined radio devices and the absence of interactions/coordination between primary and secondary devices. To meet this challenge, we propose an attack-tolerant distributed sensing protocol (ADSP) for DTV signal detection in IEEE 802.22 WRANs, under which sensors in close proximity are grouped as a cluster, and sensors within a cluster cooperate to safeguard the integrity of sensing. The heart of ADSP is a novel filter based on shadow-fading correlation, by which the fusion center cross-validates reports from the sensors to identify and penalize abnormal sensing reports. By realizing this correlation filter, ADSP significantly reduces the impact of an attack on the performance of distributed sensing, while incurring minimal processing and communication overheads. ADSP also guarantees the detectability requirements of 802.22 to be met even with the presence of sensing report manipulation attacks by scheduling sensing within the framework of sequential hypothesis testing. The efficacy of ADSP is validated on a realistic 2D shadow-fading field. Our extensive simulation-based study shows that ADSP reduces the false-alarm rate by 99.2 percent while achieving 97.4 percent of maximum achievable detection rate, and meets the detection requirements of IEEE 802.22 in various attack scenarios.

[1] A.W. Min, K.G. Shin, and X. Hu, "Attack-Tolerant Distributed Sensing for Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks," Proc. IEEE 17th Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP '09), Oct. 2009.
[2] S. Shellhammer, S. Shankar, R. Tandra, and J. Tomcik, "Performance of Power Detector Sensors of DTV Signals in IEEE 802.22 WRANs," Proc. ACM First Int'l Workshop Technology and Policy for Accessing Spectrum (TAPAS '06), Aug. 2006.
[3] S. Shellhammer and R. Tandra, "An Evaluation of DTV Pilot Power Detection," IEEE 802.22-06/0188r0, Sept. 2006.
[4] A.W. Min and K.G. Shin, "An Optimal Sensing Framework Based on Spatial RSS-Profile in Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. IEEE Sixth Ann. Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON '09), June 2009.
[5] A.W. Min and K.G. Shin, "Impact of Mobility on Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. ACM Workshop Cognitive Radio Networks (CoRoNet '09), Sept. 2009.
[6] Y.-C. Liang, Y. Zeng, E.C.Y. Peh, and A.T. Hoang, "Sensing-Throughput Tradeoff for Cognitive Radio Networks," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1326-1337, Apr. 2008.
[7] A. Ghasemi and E.S. Sousa, "Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Opportunistic Access in Fading Environments," Proc. IEEE First Int'l Symp. New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '05), Nov. 2005.
[8] S.M. Mishra, A. Sahai, and R.W. Brodersen, "Cooperative Sensing among Cognitive Radios," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '06), June 2006.
[9] R. Chen, J.-M. Park, and J.H. Reed, "Defense against Primary User Emulation Attacks in Cognitive Radio Networks," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 25-37, Jan. 2008.
[10] S. Anand, Z. Jin, and K.P. Subbalakshmi, "An Analytical Model for Primary User Emulation Attacks in Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. IEEE Symp. New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '08), Oct. 2008.
[11] R. Chen, J.-M. Park, and K. Bian, "Robust Distributed Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2008.
[12] C. Cordeiro, K. Challapali, D. Birru, and S. Shankar, "IEEE 802.22: An Introduction to the First Wireless Standard Based on Cognitive Radio," J. Comm., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 38-47, Apr. 2006.
[13] W. Rose, "Enhanced Protection for Low Power Licensed Devices Operating in TV Broadcast Bands," IEEE 802.22-06/0073r2, May 2006.
[14] USRP: Universal Software Radio Peripheral, http:/www.ettus. com, 2011.
[15] K. Tan et al., "Sora: High Performance Software Radio Using General Purpose Multi-Core Processors," Proc. USENIX Symp. Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI '09), Apr. 2009.
[16] W. Xu, P. Kamat, and W. Trappe, "TRIESTE: A Trusted Radio Infrastructure for Enforcing Spectrum Etiquettes," Proc. Allerton, Sept. 2008.
[17] A. Ghasemi and E.S. Sousa, "Asymptotic Performance of Collaborative Spectrum Sensing under Correlated Log-Normal Shadowing," IEEE Comm. Lett., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 34-36, Jan. 2007.
[18] P. Kaligineedi, M. Khabbazian, and V.K. Bharava, "Secure Cooperative Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Systems," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '08), May 2008.
[19] A. Mody et al., "Collaborative Sensing for Security," IEEE 802.22-08/0301r011, Dec. 2008.
[20] K.A. Woyach, A. Sahai, G. Atia, and V. Saligrama, "Crime and Punishment for Cognitive Radios," Proc. IEEE 46th Ann. Allerton Conf. Comm., Control and Computing, Sept. 2008.
[21] S. Liu, Y. Chen, W. Trappe, and L.J. Greenstein, "ALDO: An Anomaly Detection Framework for Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2009.
[22] W. Zhang, S.K. Das, and Y. Liu, "A Trust Based Framework for Secure Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Third Ann. Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON '06), Sept. 2006.
[23] Y. Yang, X. Wang, S. Zhu, and G. Cao, "SDAP: A Secure Hop-by-Hop Data Aggregation Protocol for Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, May 2006.
[24] W. Du, J. Deng, Y.S. Han, and P.K. Varshney, "A Witness-Based Approach for Data Fusion Assurance in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf. (GlobeCom '03), Dec. 2003.
[25] F. Liu, X. Cheng, and D. Chen, "Insider Attacker Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, May 2007.
[26] FCC, "Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Order," FCC 08-188, Aug. 2008.
[27] A. Goldsmith, Wireless Communications. Cambridge Univ., 2005.
[28] S.J. Shellhammer, "Spectrum Sensing in IEEE 802.22," Proc. IAPR Workshop Cognitive Information Processing, June 2008.
[29] F.F. Digham, M.-S. Alouini, and M.K. Simon, "On the Energy Detection of Unknown Signals over Fading Channels," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '03), May 2003.
[30] M. Gudmundson, "A Correlation Model for Shadow Fading in Mobile Radio," Electronics Letters, vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 2146-2147, Nov. 1991.
[31] T. Muetze, P. Stuedi, F. Kuhn, and G. Alonso, "Understanding Radio Irregularity in Wireless Networks," Proc. IEEE Fifth Ann. Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON '08), June 2008.
[32] N. Patwari and P. Agrawal, "Effects of Correlated Shadowing: Connectivity, Localization, and RF Tomography," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '08), Apr. 2008.
[33] J. Riihijärvi, P. Mähönen, M. Wellens, and M. Gordziel, "Characterization and Modelling of Spectrum for Dynamic Spectrum Access with Spatial Statistics and Random Fields," Proc. IEEE 19th Int'l Symp. Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Comm. (PIMRC '08), Sept. 2008.
[34] I. Forkel, M. Schinnenburg, and M. Ang, "Generation of Two-Dimensional Correlated Shadowing for Mobile Radio Network Simulation," Proc. Seventh Int'l Symp. Wireless Personal Multimedia Comm. (WPMC '04), Sept. 2004.
[35] A. Algans, K.I. Pedersen, and P.E. Mogensen, "Experimental Analysis of the Joint Statistical Properties of Azimuth Spread, Delay Spread, and Shadow Fading," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 523-531, Apr. 2002.
[36] Y. Chen, W. Trappe, and R.P. Martin, "Attack Detection in Wireless Localization," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, May 2007.
[37] T. Park and K.G. Shin, "Attack-Tolerant Localization via Iterative Verification of Locations in Sensor Networks," ACM Trans. Embedded Computing Systems, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 2:1-2:24, Jan. 2009.
[38] M. Sawada, D. Cossette, B. Wellar, and T. Kurt, "Analysis of the Urban/Rural Broadband Divide in Canada: Using GIS in Planning Terrestrial Wireless Deployment," Gov't Information Quarterly, vol. 23, pp. 454-479, Sept. 2006.
[39] A. Wald, Sequential Analysis. Courier Dover, 2004.

Index Terms:
Cognitive radio, cooperative sensing, shadowing correlation, attack tolerance, IEEE 802.22, sensing scheduling.
Citation:
Alexander W. Min, Kang G. Shin, Xin Hu, "Secure Cooperative Sensing in IEEE 802.22 WRANs Using Shadow Fading Correlation," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1434-1447, Oct. 2011, doi:10.1109/TMC.2010.252
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.