This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
ConverSS: A Hybrid MAC/Routing Solution for Small-Scale, Convergecast Wireless Networks
September 2011 (vol. 10 no. 9)
pp. 1227-1236
Clement Kam, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla
Curt Schurgers, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla
In applications involving networks of sensor-equipped autonomous vehicles, it is crucial to have an energy-efficient communication protocol due to the limited on-board batteries. Unlike traditional sensor networks, vehicle sensor networks typically consist of only a small number of nodes. We exploit this fact in our protocol design by optimizing specifically for these mobile small-scale networks. Our proposed solution, ConverSS, is a hybrid MAC/routing protocol that is energy-efficient for vehicle sensor networks. We have evaluated the protocol through simulation in ns-2 and verified its operation in a testbed network deployment. The results show that ConverSS is robust to real-world link impairments and that it outperforms common layered solutions by as much as a factor of 10.

[1] P. Juang, H. Oki, Y. Wang, M. Martonosi, L.S. Peh, and D. Rubenstein, “Energy-Efficient Computing for Wildlife Tracking: Design Tradeoffs and Early Experiences with ZebraNet,” Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, Oct. 2002.
[2] C. Zhu and M.S. Corson, “A Five-Phase Reservation Protocol (FPRP) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 322-331, Apr. 1998.
[3] G. Zhou, T. He, S. Krishnamurthy, and J.A. Stankovic, “Models and Solutions for Radio Irregularity in Wireless Sensor Networks,” ACM Trans. Sensor Networks, vol. 2, pp. 221-262, May 2006.
[4] L. Sang, A. Arora, and H. Zhang, “On Exploiting Asymmetric Wireless Links via One-Way Estimation,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, Sept. 2007.
[5] F. Silva, J. Heidemann, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, “Directed Diffusion,” Technical Report ISI-TR-2004-586, USC/Information Sciences Inst., Jan. 2004.
[6] E. Shih, P. Bahl, and M.J. Sinclair, “Wake on Wireless: An Event Driven Energy Saving Strategy for Battery Operated Devices,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, Sept. 2002.
[7] Texas Instruments, CC2420, Single-Chip 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant and ZigBee Ready RF Transceiver, http://focus.ti. com/docs/prod/folders/print cc2420.html, 2011.
[8] R. de Paz Alberola and D. Pesch, “AvroraZ: Extending Avrora with an IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant Radio Chip Model,” Proc. Third ACM Int'l Workshop Performance Monitoring, Measurement, and Evaluation of Heterogeneous Wireless and Wired Networks, 2008.
[9] N.-L. Lai, C.-T. King, and C.-H. Lin, “On Maximizing the Throughput of Convergecast in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 396-408. Springer, 2008.
[10] G. Lu, B. Krishnamachari, and C.S. Raghavendra, “An Adaptive Energy-Efficient and Low-Latency MAC for Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. 18th Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., p. 224, Apr. 2004.
[11] B. Ren, J. Xiao, J. Ma, and S. Cheng, “An Energy-Conserving and Collision-Free MAC Protocol Based on TDMA for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Networks, pp. 603-612, Springer, 2005.
[12] Y. Zhang and Q. Huang, “Coordinated Convergecast in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Military Comm. Conf. (MILCOM '05), 2005.
[13] H.-W. Tsai and T.-S. Chen, “Minimal Time and Conflict-Free Schedule for Convergecast in Wireless Networks,” IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '08), May 2008.
[14] V. Annamalai, S.K.S. Gupta, and L. Schwiebert, “On Tree-Based Convergecasting in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking (WCNC '03), Mar. 2003.
[15] B. Karp and H.T. Kung, “GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks,” Proc. Sixth Ann. Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, 2000.
[16] J. Luo and J.-P. Hubaux, “A Survey of Inter-Vehicle Communication,” Technical Report IC/2004/24, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 2004.
[17] J. Bernsen and D. Manivannan, “Greedy Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int'l Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing Conf. (IWCMC '08), 2008.
[18] S. Biswas, R. Tatchikou, and F. Dion, “Vehicle-to-Vehicle Wireless Communication Protocols for Enhancing Highway Traffic Safety,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 74-82, Jan. 2006.
[19] S. Wang, C. Lin, Y. Hwang, K. Tao, and C. Chou, “A Practical Routing Protocol for Vehicle-Formed Mobile Ad Hoc Networks on the Roads,” Proc. Eighth Int'l IEEE Conf. Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2005.
[20] C. Kam and C. Schurgers, “TreeDMA: A Hybrid MAC/Routing Solution for Small-Scale Wireless Networks,” Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Information Fusion and Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks (SensorFusion '09, Mobiquitous '09), July 2009.

Index Terms:
Algorithm/protocol design and analysis, mobile communication systems.
Citation:
Clement Kam, Curt Schurgers, "ConverSS: A Hybrid MAC/Routing Solution for Small-Scale, Convergecast Wireless Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1227-1236, Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/TMC.2010.257
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.