The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.05 - May (2011 vol.10)
pp: 638-652
Zhenzhen Ye , Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy
Alhussein A. Abouzeid , Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy
We consider the location service in a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET), where each node needs to maintain its location information by 1) frequently updating its location information within its neighboring region, which is called neighborhood update (NU), and 2) occasionally updating its location information to certain distributed location server in the network, which is called location server update (LSU). The trade off between the operation costs in location updates and the performance losses of the target application due to location inaccuracies (i.e., application costs) imposes a crucial question for nodes to decide the optimal strategy to update their location information, where the optimality is in the sense of minimizing the overall costs. In this paper, we develop a stochastic sequential decision framework to analyze this problem. Under a Markovian mobility model, the location update decision problem is modeled as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). We first investigate the monotonicity properties of optimal NU and LSU operations with respect to location inaccuracies under a general cost setting. Then, given a separable cost structure, we show that the location update decisions of NU and LSU can be independently carried out without loss of optimality, i.e., a separation property. From the discovered separation property of the problem structure and the monotonicity properties of optimal actions, we find that 1) there always exists a simple optimal threshold-based update rule for LSU operations; 2) for NU operations, an optimal threshold-based update rule exists in a low-mobility scenario. In the case that no a priori knowledge of the MDP model is available, we also introduce a practical model-free learning approach to find a near-optimal solution for the problem.
Location update, mobile ad hoc networks, Markov decision processes, least-squares policy iteration.
Zhenzhen Ye, Alhussein A. Abouzeid, "Optimal Stochastic Location Updates in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.10, no. 5, pp. 638-652, May 2011, doi:10.1109/TMC.2010.201
[1] M. Mauve, J. Widmer, and H. Hannes, "A Survey on Position-Based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE Network, pp. 30-39, Nov./Dec. 2001.
[2] Y.C. Tseng, S.L. Wu, W.H. Liao, and C.M. Chao, "Location Awareness in Ad Hoc Wireless Mobile Networks," Proc. IEEE Computer, pp. 46-52, June 2001.
[3] S.J. Barnes, "Location-Based Services: The State of the Art," e-Service J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 59-70, 2003.
[4] M.A. Fecko and M. Steinder, "Combinatorial Designs in Multiple Faults Localization for Battlefield Networks," Proc. IEEE Military Comm. Conf. (MILCOM '01), Oct. 2001.
[5] M. Natu and A.S. Sethi, "Adaptive Fault Localization in Mobile Ad Hoc Battlefield Networks," Proc. IEEE Military Comm. Conf. (MILCOM '05), pp. 814-820, Oct. 2005.
[6] PSWAC, Final Report of the Public Safety Wireless Advisory Committee to the Federal Communications Commission and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, PSWAC_ AL.PDF, Sept. 1996.
[7] NIST Communications and Networking for Public Safety Project, http://w3.antd.nist.govcomm_net_ps.shtml , 2010.
[8] I. Stojmenovic, "Location Updates for Efficient Routing in Ad Hoc Networks," Handbook of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, pp. 451-471, Wiley, 2002.
[9] T. Park and K.G. Shin, "Optimal Tradeoffs for Location-Based Routing in Large-Scale Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 398-410, Apr. 2005.
[10] R.C. Shah, A. Wolisz, and J.M. Rabaey, "On the Performance of Geographic Routing in the Presence of Localization Errors," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '05), pp. 2979-2985, May 2005.
[11] S. Giordano and M. Hamdi, "Mobility Management: The Virtual Home Region," ICA technical report, EPFL, Mar. 2000.
[12] I. Stojmenovic, "Home Agent Based Location Update and Destination Search Schemes in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Technical Report TR-99-10, Comp. Science, SITE Univ. Ottawa, Sept. 1999.
[13] J. Li et al., "A Scalable Location Service for Geographic Ad Hoc Routing," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 120-130, 2000.
[14] Y.B. Ko and N.H. Vaidya, "Location-Aided Routing (LAR) in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," ACM/Baltzer Wireless Networks J., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 307-321, 2000.
[15] S. Kwon and N.B. Shroff, "Geographic Routing in the Presence of Location Errors," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Broadband Comm. Networks and Systems (BROADNETS '05), pp. 622-630, Oct. 2005.
[16] M.L. Puterman, Markov Decision Processes: Discrete Stochastic Dynamic Programming. Wiley, 1994.
[17] A. Bar-Noy, I. Kessler, and M. Sidi, "Mobile Users: To Update or not to Update?" ACM/Baltzer Wireless Networks J., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 175-195, July 1995.
[18] U. Madhow, M. Honig, and K. Steiglitz, "Optimization of Wireless Resources for Personal Communications Mobility Tracking," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 698-707, Dec. 1995.
[19] V.W.S. Wong and V.C.M. Leung, "An Adaptive Distance-Based Location Update Algorithm for Next-Generation PCS Networks," IEEE J. Selected Areas on Comm., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1942-1952, Oct. 2001.
[20] K.J. Hintz and G.A. McIntyre, "Information Instantiation in Sensor Management," Proc. SPIE Int'l Symp. Aerospace and Defense Sensing, Simulation, and Controls (AEROSENSE '98), vol. 3374, pp. 38-47, 1998.
[21] M.G. Lagoudakis and R. Parr, "Least-Squares Policy Iteration," J. Machine Learning Research (JMLR '03), vol. 4, pp. 1107-1149, Dec. 2003.
[22] D.P. Bertsekas and J.N. Tsitsiklis, Nero-Dynamic Programming. Athena Scientific, 1996.
[23] R. Sutton and A. Barto, Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction. MIT, 1998.
[24] S. Basagni, I. Chlamtac, V.R. Syrotiuk, and B.A. Woodward, "A Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM)," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 76-84, 1998.
[25] D.M. Blough, G. Resta, and P. Santi, "A Statistical Analysis of the Long-Run Node Spatial Distribution in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM '02), pp. 30-37, Sept. 2002.
[26] H. Takagi and L. Kleinrock, "Optimal Transmission Ranges for Randomly Distributed Packet Radio Terminals," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 246-257, Mar. 1984.
35 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool