The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.11 - November (2010 vol.9)
pp: 1634-1648
Hongwei Zhang , Wayne State University, Detroit
Lifeng Sang , Ohio State University, Columbus
Anish Arora , Ohio State University, Columbus
Link estimation is a basic element of routing in low-power wireless networks, and data-driven link estimation using unicast MAC feedback has been shown to outperform broadcast-beacon-based link estimation. Nonetheless, little is known about how different data-driven link estimation methods affect routing behaviors. To address this issue, we classify existing data-driven link estimation methods into two broad categories: L-NT that uses aggregate information about unicast and L-ETX that uses information about the individual unicast-physical-transmissions. Through mathematical analysis and experimental measurement in a testbed of 98 XSM motes (an enhanced version of MICA2 motes), we examine the accuracy and stability of L-NT and L-ETX in estimating the ETX routing metric. We also experimentally study the routing performance of L-NT and L-ETX. We discover that these two representative, seemingly similar methods of data-driven link estimation differ significantly in routing behaviors: L-ETX is much more accurate and stable than L-NT in estimating the ETX metric, and accordingly, L-ETX achieves a higher data delivery reliability and energy efficiency than L-NT (for instance, by 25.18 percent and a factor of 3.75, respectively, in our testbed). These findings provide new insight into the subtle design issues in data-driven link estimation that significantly impact the reliability, stability, and efficiency of wireless routing, thus shedding light on how to design link estimation methods for mission-critical wireless networks which pose stringent requirements on reliability and predictability.
Low-power wireless networks, sensor networks, link estimation and routing, data driven, beacon based, distance vector routing, geographic routing.
Hongwei Zhang, Lifeng Sang, Anish Arora, "Comparison of Data-Driven Link Estimation Methods in Low-Power Wireless Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.9, no. 11, pp. 1634-1648, November 2010, doi:10.1109/TMC.2010.126
[1] D. Aguayo, J. Bicket, S. Biswas, G. Judd, and R. Morris, "Link-Level Measurements from an 802.11b Mesh Network," ACM SIGCOMM, 2004.
[2] D. Kotz, C. Newport, and C. Elliott, "The Mistaken Axioms of Wireless-Network Research," Technical Report TR2003-467, Dartmouth College, July 2003.
[3] J. Zhao and R. Govindan, "Understanding Packet Delivery Performance in Dense Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2003.
[4] M. Zuniga and B. Krishnamachari, "An Analysis of Unreliability and Asymmetry in Low-Power Wireless Links," ACM Trans. Sensor Networks, vol. 3, no. 2, 2007.
[5] D.S.J.D. Couto, D. Aguayo, J. Bicket, and R. Morris, "A High-Throughput Path Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless Routing," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2003.
[6] A. Woo, T. Tong, and D. Culler, "Taming the Underlying Challenges of Reliable Multihop Routing in Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2003.
[7] I. Chakeres and E. Belding-Royer, "The Utility of Hello Messages for Determining Link Connectivity," Proc. Int'l Symp. Wireless Personal Multimedia Comm. (WPMC), 2002.
[8] H. Lundgren, E. Nordstrom, and C. Tschudin, "Coping with Communication Gray Zones in IEEE 802.11b Based Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM Int'l Workshop Wireless Mobile Multimedia (WoWMoM), 2002.
[9] A. Willig, "A New Class of Packet- and Bit-Level Models for Wireless Channels," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Comm. (PIMRC), 2002.
[10] H. Zhang, A. Arora, and P. Sinha, "Link Estimation and Routing in Sensor Network Backbones: Beacon-Based or Data-Driven?" IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 653-667, May 2009.
[11] R. Fonseca, O. Gnawali, K. Jamieson, and P. Levis, "Four-Bit Wireless Link Estimation," Proc. ACM Workshop HotNets, 2007.
[12] T. He, J. Stankovic, C. Lu, and T. Abdelzaher, "SPEED: A Stateless Protocol for Real-Time Communication in Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2003.
[13] K.-H. Kim and K.G. Shin, "On Accurate Measurement of Link Quality in Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2006.
[14] R. Krishnan, A. Raniwala, and T.-c. Chiueh, "Design of a Channel Characteristics-Aware Routing Protocol," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2008.
[15] S. Lee, B. Bhattacharjee, and S. Banerjee, "Efficient Geographic Routing in Multihop Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2005.
[16] H. Zhang, A. Arora, and P. Sinha, "Learn on the Fly: Data-Driven Link Estimation and Routing in Sensor Network Backbones," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2006.
[17] "Exscal Project," http://www.cse.ohio-state.eduexscal, 2004.
[18] O. Gnawali, R. Fonseca, K. Jamieson, D. Moss, and P. Levis, "Collection Tree Protocol," Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2009.
[19] M. Kim and B. Noble, "Mobile Network Estimation," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2001.
[20] H. Zhang, L. Sang, and A. Arora, "Experimental Analysis of Link Estimation Methods in Low Power Wireless Networks," Technical Report WSU-CS-DNC-TR-08-06, Wayne State Univ., DNC-TR-08-06.pdf, 2008.
[21] A. Keshavarzian, E. Uysal-Biyikoglu, D. Lal, and K. Chintalapudi, "From Experience with Indoor Wireless Networks: A Link Quality Metric That Captures Channel Memory," IEEE Comm. Letters, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 729-731, Sept. 2007.
[22] K. Srinivasan, M.A. Kazandjieva, S. Agarwal, and P. Levis, "The $\beta$ -Factor: Measuring Wireless Link Burstiness," Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2008.
[23] E. Ertin, A. Arora, R. Ramnath, M. Nesterenko, V. Naik, S. Bapat, V. Kulathumani, M. Sridharan, H. Zhang, and H. Cao, "Kansei: A Testbed for Sensing at Scale," Proc. IEEE/ACM Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN/SPOTS), 2006.
[24] P. Dutta, M. Grimmer, A. Arora, S. Bibyk, and D. Culler, "Design of a Wireless Sensor Network Platform for Detecting Rare, Random, and Ephemeral Events," Proc. IEEE/ACM Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN/SPOTS), 2005.
[25] "Crossbow Mica2 Motes," Product_pdf _files/ Wireless_pdfMICA2_Datasheet.pdf , 2009.
[26] "Chipcon CC1000 RF Transceiver," , 2010.
[27] "TinyOS," http:/, 2010.
[28] J. Polastre, J. Hill, and D. Culler, "Versatile Low Power Media Access for Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2004.
[29] P.C. Ng and S.C. Liew, "Throughput Analysis of IEEE 802.11 Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 309-322, Apr. 2007.
[30] "An Event Traffic Trace for Sensor Networks," http://www.cs. Lites-trace.txt, 2009.
[31] J. Li, C. Blake, D.S.D. Couto, H.I. Lee, and R. Morris, "Capacity of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2001.
[32] K. Srinivasan, P. Dutta, A. Tavakoli, and P. Levis, "Understanding the Causes of Packet Delivery Success and Failure in Dense Wireless Sensor Networks," Technical Report SING-06-00, Stanford Univ., 2006.
[33] D. Son, B. Krishnamachari, and J. Heidemann, "Experimental Analysis of Concurrent Packet Transmissions in Low-Power Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2006.
[34] L. Qiu, Y. Zhang, F. Wang, M.K. Han, and R. Mahajan, "A General Model of Wireless Interference," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2007.
[35] Q. Cao, T. He, L. Fang, T. Abdelzaher, J. Stankovic, and S. Son, "Efficiency Centric Communication Model for Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2006.
[36] Y. Gu and T. He, "Data Forwarding in Extremely Low Duty-Cycle Sensor Networks with Unreliable Communication Links," Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2007.
[37] C.E. Koksal and H. Balakrishnan, "Quality-Aware Routing Metrics for Time-Varying Wireless Mesh Networks," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1984-1994, Nov. 2006.
[38] J.C. Park and S.K. Kasera, "Expected Data Rate: An Accurate High-Throughput Path Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless Routing," Proc. IEEE Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON), 2005.
[39] D. Pompili, T. Melodia, and I.F. Akyildiz, "Routing Algorithms for Delay-Insensitive and Delay-Sensitive Applications in Underwater Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2006.
[40] M. Wachs, J.I. Choi, J.W. Lee, K. Srinivasan, Z. Chen, M. Jain, and P. Levis, "Visibility: A New Metric for Protocol Design," Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2007.
[41] H. Zhai and Y. Fang, "Impact of Routing Metrics on Path Capacity in Multirate and Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), 2006.
[42] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, "Directed Diffusion: A Scalable and Robust Communication Paradigm for Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2000.
[43] S. Biswas and R. Morris, "ExOR: Opportunistic Multi-Hop Routing for Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2005.
[44] S. Chachulski, M. Jennings, S. Katti, and D. Katabi, "Trading Structure for Randomness in Wireless Opportunistic Routing," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2007.
[45] T. He, B.M. Blum, Q. Cao, J.A. Stankovic, S.H. Son, and T.F. Abdelzaher, "Robust and Timely Communication over Highly Dynamic Sensor Networks," Real-Time Systems J., vol. 37, pp. 261-289, 2007.
[46] F. Ye, G. Zhong, S. Lu, and L. Zhang, "GRAdient Broadcast: A Robust Data Delivery Protocol for Large Scale Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), 2003.
[47] R. Draves, J. Padhye, and B. Zill, "Comparison of Routing Metrics for Static Multi-Hop Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2004.
[48] J. Broch, D.A. Maltz, D.B. Johnson, Y.-C. Hu, and J. Jetcheva, "A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 1998.
15 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool