The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.09 - September (2010 vol.9)
pp: 1212-1225
Ramya Raghavendra , University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara
Elizabeth M. Belding , University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara
Konstantina Papagiannaki , Intel Research, Pittsburgh
Kevin C. Almeroth , University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara
ABSTRACT
Wireless networks have evolved into an important technology for connecting users to the Internet. As the utility of wireless technology grows, wireless networks are being deployed in more widely varying conditions. The monitoring of wireless networks continues to reveal key implementation deficiencies that need to be corrected in order to improve protocol operation and end-to-end network performance. In wireless networks, where the medium is shared, unwanted traffic can pose significant overhead and lead to suboptimal network performance. Much of the previous analyses of unwanted traffic in wireless networks focus on malicious traffic. However, another major contributor of unwanted traffic is incorrect link layer behavior. Using data we collected from the 67th Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) meeting held in November 2006, we show that a significant portion of link layer traffic stems from mechanisms that initiate, maintain, and change client-AP associations. We further show that under conditions of high medium utilization and packet loss rate, handoffs are initiated incorrectly. We analyze the traffic to understand when handoffs occur and whether the handoffs were beneficial or should have been avoided.
INDEX TERMS
Network protocols, network operations, experimentation, management, measurement, performance, handoff, wireless networks, congestion, IEEE 802.11.
CITATION
Ramya Raghavendra, Elizabeth M. Belding, Konstantina Papagiannaki, Kevin C. Almeroth, "Unwanted Link Layer Traffic in Large IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.9, no. 9, pp. 1212-1225, September 2010, doi:10.1109/TMC.2010.88
REFERENCES
[1] A.P. Jardosh, K. Mittal, K.N. Ramachandran, E.M. Belding, and K.C. Almeroth, "IQU: Practical Queue-Based User Association Management for Wlans," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 158-169, Sept. 2006.
[2] F. Ricciato, P. Svoboda, E. Hasenleithner, and W. Fleischer, "Unwanted Traffic in 3G Networks," SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 53-56, 2006.
[3] A.P. Jardosh, K.N. Ramachandran, K.C. Almeroth, and E.M. Belding-Royer, "Understanding Link-Layer Behavior in Highly Congested IEEE 802.11b Wireless Networks," Proc. Workshop Experimental Approaches to Wireless Network Design and Analysis (EWIND), pp. 11-16, Aug. 2005.
[4] M. Rodrig, C. Reis, R. Mahajan, D. Wetherall, and J. Zahorjan, "Measurement-Based Characterization of 802.11 in a Hotspot Setting," Proc. Workshop Experimental Approaches to Wireless Network Design and Analysis (EWIND), pp. 5-10, Aug. 2005.
[5] A.P. Jardosh, K.N. Ramachandran, K.C. Almeroth, and E.M. Belding-Royer, "Understanding Congestion in ieee 802.11b Wireless Networks," Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), Oct. 2005.
[6] R. Raghavendra, E.M. Belding, K. Papagiannaki, and K.C. Almeroth, "Understanding Handoffs in Large IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks," Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), Oct. 2007.
[7] D. Tang and M. Baker, "Analysis of a Local-Area Wireless Network," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 1-10, Aug. 2000.
[8] D. Kotz and K. Essien, "Analysis of a Campus-Wide Wireless Network," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 107-118, Sept. 2002.
[9] D. Tang and M. Baker, "Analysis of a Metropolitan-Area Wireless Network," Wireless Networking, vol. 8, nos. 2/3, pp. 107-120, 2002.
[10] M. Balazinska and P. Castro, "Characterizing Mobility and Network Usage in a Corporate Wireless Local-Area Network," Proc. MobiSys, pp. 303-316, May 2003.
[11] A. Balachandran, G.M. Voelker, P. Bahl, and P.V. Rangan, "Characterizing User Behavior and Network Performance in a Public Wireless LAN," Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, pp. 195-205, June 2002.
[12] T. Henderson, D. Kotz, and I. Abyzov, "The Changing Usage of a Mature Campus-Wide Wireless Network," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 187-201, Sept. 2004.
[13] J. Yeo, M. Youssef, and A. Agrawala, "A Framework for Wireless LAN Monitoring and Its Applications," Proc. Workshop Wireless Security (WiSe), pp. 70-79, Oct. 2004.
[14] P.A.K. Acharya, A. Sharma, E.M. Belding, K.C. Almeroth, and K. Papagiannaki, "Congestion-Aware Rate Adaptation in Wireless Networks: A Measurement-Driven Approach," Proc. Annual IEEE Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON), Oct. 2008.
[15] R. Beyah, S. Kangude, G. Yu, B. Strickland, and J. Copeland, "Rogue Access Point Detection Using Temporal Traffic Characteristics," Proc. IEEE Global Comm. Conf. (GLOBECOM), Nov. 2004.
[16] A. Mishra, M. Shin, and W.A. Arbaugh, "An Empirical Analysis of the IEEE 802.11 MAC Layer Handoff Process," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 93-102, Apr. 2003.
[17] H. Velayos and G. Karlsson, "Techniques to Reduce IEEE 802.11b Handoff Time," Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Comm. (ICC), June 2004.
[18] H.-S. Kim, S.-H. Park, C.-S. Park, J.-W. Kim, and S.-J. Ko, "Selective Channel Scanning for Fast Handoff in Wireless LAN Using Neighbor Graph," Proc. Int'l Technical Conf. Circuits/Systems, Computers and Comm. (ITC-CSCC), pp. 303-316, July 2004.
[19] I. Ramani and S. Savage, "SyncScan: Practical Fast Handoff for 802.11 Infrastructure Network," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2005.
[20] V. Mhatre and K. Papagiannaki, "Using Smart Triggers for Improved User Performance in 802.11 Wireless Networks," Proc. MobiSys, pp. 246-259, June 2006.
[21] S. Vasudevan, K. Papagiannaki, C. Diot, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, "Improved Access Point Selection," Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), Oct. 2005.
[22] A.J. Nicholson, Y. Chawathe, M.Y. Chen, B.D. Noble, and D. Wetherall, "Improved Access Point Selection," Proc. MobiSys, pp. 233-245, June 2006.
[23] R. Mahajan, M. Rodrig, D. Wetherall, and J. Zahorjan, "Analyzing the Mac-Level Behavior of Wireless Networks in the Wild," Proc. SIGCOMM, pp. 75-86, Sept. 2006.
[24] TCP Wake-Up: Reducing Keep-Alive Traffic in Mobile IPv4 and IPsec NAT Traversal, http://research.nokia.com/filesNRCTR2008002.pdf , Jan. 2008.
[25] R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. Leach, and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol—HTTP/1.1," 1999.
[26] "Requirements for Internet Hosts—Communication Layers," 1989.
[27] V. Paxson, "End-to-End Routing Behavior in the Internet," Proc. SIGCOMM, pp. 25-38, 1996.
18 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool