Subscribe
Issue No.08 - August (2010 vol.9)
pp: 1147-1160
Elias C. Efstathiou , Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece
Pantelis A. Frangoudis , Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece
George C. Polyzos , Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece
ABSTRACT
In densely populated cities, Wi-Fi networks—private or otherwise—are ubiquitous. We focus on the provision of citywide broadband communication capability to mobile users through private Wi-Fi networks that are in range but belong to others. We form a club that relies on indirect reciprocity: Members participate in the club and provide free Wi-Fi access to other members in order to enjoy the same benefit when they are away from their own Wi-Fi network. Our club scheme does not require registration with an authority and does not rely on centrally issued club identities: Members create their own identities (public-private key pairs) and receive signed digital receipts when they provide Wi-Fi service to other members. These receipts form a distributed receipt graph, parts of which are used as input to an indirect reciprocity algorithm that classifies club members according to their contribution. We show that our algorithm can sustain cooperation within the club and is robust to attacks by free-riders. We implement and evaluate our proposed club algorithms on commodity Wi-Fi routers and dual-mode cellular/Wi-Fi phones. Because we anticipate that Wi-Fi telephony will be a popular club application, we present and evaluate a secure and decentralized architecture for citywide voice (and multimedia) communications that is compatible with our club both from an architectural as well as an incentives perspective.
INDEX TERMS
Wi-Fi, community networks, cooperation, decentralization, indirect reciprocity, Wi-Fi telephony.
CITATION
Elias C. Efstathiou, Pantelis A. Frangoudis, George C. Polyzos, "Controlled Wi-Fi Sharing in Cities: A Decentralized Approach Relying on Indirect Reciprocity", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.9, no. 8, pp. 1147-1160, August 2010, doi:10.1109/TMC.2010.79
REFERENCES
[1] Linksys, http:/www.linksysbycisco.com, 2010.
[2] Openswan, http:/www.openswan.org, 2010.
[3] P2PWNC Project Website, http://mm.aueb.gr/researchp2pwnc, 2010.
[4] Speakeasy NetShare Service, http://www.speakeasy.netnetshare, 2010.
[5] K.G. Anagnostakis and M.B. Greenwald, "Exchange-Based Incentive Mechanisms for Peer-to-Peer File Sharing," Proc. 24th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '04), 2004.
[6] S. Capkun, L. Buttyan, and J.P. Hubaux, "Self-Organized Public-Key Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 52-64, Jan.-Mar. 2003.
[7] R. Axelrod, The Evolution of Cooperation. Penguin Books, 1990 (first published by Basic Books, 1984).
[8] S. Buchegger and J.Y.L. Boudec, "Performance Analysis of the CONFIDANT Protocol (Cooperation of Nodes: Fairness in Dynamic Ad-Hoc Networks)," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2002.
[9] L. Buttyan and J.P. Hubaux, "Stimulating Cooperation in Self-Organizing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," ACM/Kluwer Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 579-592, 2003.
[10] V. Bychkovsky, B. Hull, A. Miu, H. Balakrishnan, and S. Madden, "A Measurement Study of Vehicular Internet Access Using in situ Wi-Fi Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2006.
[11] B.V. Cherkassky and A.V. Goldberg, "On Implementing the Push-Relabel Method for the Maximum Flow Problem," Algorithmica, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 390-310, 1997.
[12] R.G. Cole and J.H. Rosenbluth, "Voice over IP Performance Monitoring," ACM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 9-24, 2001.
[13] L.P. Cox and B.D. Noble, "Samsara: Honor among Thieves in Peer-to-Peer Storage," Proc. 19th ACM Symp. Operating System Principles (SOSP '03), 2003.
[14] J.R. Douceur, "The Sybil Attack," Proc. First Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '02), 2002.
[15] E.C. Efstathiou and G.C. Polyzos, "A Peer-to-Peer Approach to Wireless LAN Roaming," Proc. ACM Int'l Workshop Wireless Mobile Applications and Services on WLAN Hotspots (WMASH), 2003.
[16] E.C. Efstathiou, P.A. Frangoudis, and G.C. Polyzos, "Stimulating Participation in Wireless Community Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2006.
[17] E.C. Efstathiou and G.C. Polyzos, "Self-Organized Peering of Wireless LAN Hotspots," European Trans. Telecomm., special issue on self-organization in mobile networking, vol. 16, no. 5, 2005.
[18] Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), "Wireless Friendly ISP List," http://www.eff.org/Infrastructure/Wireless_cellular_radio wireless_friendly_isp_list.html , 2009.
[19] M. Feldman and J. Chuang, "The Evolution of Cooperation under Cheap Pseudonyms," Proc. Seventh IEEE Conf. E-Commerce Technology (CEC '05), 2005.
[20] M. Feldman, K. Lai, I. Stoica, and J. Chuang, "Robust Incentive Techniques for Peer-to-Peer Networks," Proc. ACM Conf. Electronic Commerce (EC '04), 2004.
[21] M. Felegyhazi, J.P. Hubaux, and L. Buttyan, "Nash Equilibria of Packet Forwarding Strategies in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 463-476, May 2006.
[22] T. Camp, J. Boleng, and V. Davies, "A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research," Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing, special issue on mobile ad hoc networking: research, trends, and applications, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 483-502, 2002.
[23] E. Friedman and P. Resnick, "The Social Cost of Cheap Pseudonyms," J. Economics and Management Strategy, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 173-199, 1998.
[24] ITU-T Recommendation G.107, "The E-Model, A Computational Model for Use in Transmission Planning," 1998.
[25] A.V. Goldberg and R.E. Tarjan, "A New Approach to the Maximum-Flow Problem," J. ACM, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 921-940, 1998.
[26] B. Greiner and M.V. Levati, "Indirect Reciprocity in Cyclical Networks—An Experimental Study," Discussion Papers on Strategic Interaction 2003-15, Max Planck Inst. of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group, http://ideas.repec.org/p/esi/ discus 2003-15.html, 2003.
[27] S. Kent and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)," IETF RFC 2406, 1998.
[28] S. Lee, R. Sherwood, and B. Bhattacharjee, "Cooperative Peer Groups in NICE," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003.
[29] R. Levien and A. Aiken, "Attack-Resistant Trust Metrics for Public Key Certification," Proc. USENIX Security Symp., 1998.
[30] R. Mahajan, M. Rodrig, D. Wetherall, and J. Zahorjan, "Sustaining Cooperation in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks," Proc. Second USENIX Symp. Networked System Design and Implementation, 2005.
[31] P. Michiardi and R. Molva, "CORE: A Collaborative Reputation Mechanism to Enforce Node Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IFIP TC6/TC11 Sixth Joint Working Conf. Comm. and Multimedia Security, 2002.
[32] M.A. Nowak and K. Sigmund, "Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity by Image Scoring," Nature, vol. 393, pp. 573-577, 1998.
[33] B. Patel, B. Aboba, W. Dixon, G. Zorn, and S. Booth, "Securing L2TP Using IPsec," IETF RFC 3193, 2001.
[34] M.K. Reiter and S.G. Stubblebine, "Authentication Metric Analysis and Design," ACM Trans. Information and System Security, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 138-158, 1999.
[35] N.B. Salem, J.P. Hubaux, and M. Jakobsson, "Reputation-Based Wi-Fi Deployment," ACM Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 69-81, 2005.
[36] É. Tardos and K.D. Wayne, "Simple Generalized Maximum Flow Algorithms," Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Integer Programming and Combinatorial Optimization, pp. 310-324, 1998.
[37] V. Vishnumurthy, S. Chandrakumar, and E.G. Sirer, "KARMA: A Secure Economic Framework for P2P Resource Sharing," Proc. First Workshop Economics of Peer-to-Peer Systems, 2003.
[38] B. Yang and H. Garcia-Molina, "PPay: Micropayments for Peer-to-Peer Systems," Proc. 10th ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS), 2003.
[39] S. Zhong, J. Chen, and Y.R. Yang, "Sprite: A Simple, Cheat-Proof, Credit-Based System for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003.