The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.07 - July (2010 vol.9)
pp: 994-1007
Raheem A. Beyah , Georgia State University, Atlanta
Yingshu Li , Georgia State University, Atlanta
Arif Selcuk Uluagac , Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta
Designing cost-efficient, secure network protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a challenging problem because sensors are resource-limited wireless devices. Since the communication cost is the most dominant factor in a sensor's energy consumption, we introduce an energy-efficient Virtual Energy-Based Encryption and Keying (VEBEK) scheme for WSNs that significantly reduces the number of transmissions needed for rekeying to avoid stale keys. In addition to the goal of saving energy, minimal transmission is imperative for some military applications of WSNs where an adversary could be monitoring the wireless spectrum. VEBEK is a secure communication framework where sensed data is encoded using a scheme based on a permutation code generated via the RC4 encryption mechanism. The key to the RC4 encryption mechanism dynamically changes as a function of the residual virtual energy of the sensor. Thus, a one-time dynamic key is employed for one packet only and different keys are used for the successive packets of the stream. The intermediate nodes along the path to the sink are able to verify the authenticity and integrity of the incoming packets using a predicted value of the key generated by the sender's virtual energy, thus requiring no need for specific rekeying messages. VEBEK is able to efficiently detect and filter false data injected into the network by malicious outsiders. The VEBEK framework consists of two operational modes (VEBEK-I and VEBEK-II), each of which is optimal for different scenarios. In VEBEK-I, each node monitors its one-hop neighbors where VEBEK-II statistically monitors downstream nodes. We have evaluated VEBEK's feasibility and performance analytically and through simulations. Our results show that VEBEK, without incurring transmission overhead (increasing packet size or sending control messages for rekeying), is able to eliminate malicious data from the network in an energy-efficient manner. We also show that our framework performs better than other comparable schemes in the literature with an overall 60--100 percent improvement in energy savings without the assumption of a reliable medium access control layer.
Security, WSN security, VEBEK, virtual energy-based keying, resource-constrained devices.
Raheem A. Beyah, Yingshu Li, Arif Selcuk Uluagac, "VEBEK: Virtual Energy-Based Encryption and Keying for Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.9, no. 7, pp. 994-1007, July 2010, doi:10.1109/TMC.2010.51
[1] I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey," Computer Networks, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 393-422, Mar. 2002.
[2] C. Vu, R. Beyah, and Y. Li, "A Composite Event Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Performance, Computing, and Comm. Conf. (IPCCC '07), Apr. 2007.
[3] S. Uluagac, C. Lee, R. Beyah, and J. Copeland, "Designing Secure Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks," Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications, vol. 5258, pp. 503-514, Springer, 2008.
[4] Crossbow Technology, http:/, 2008.
[5] G.J. Pottie and W.J. Kaiser, "Wireless Integrated Network Sensors," Comm. ACM, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 51-58, 2000.
[6] R. Roman, C. Alcaraz, and J. Lopez, "A Survey of Cryptographic Primitives and Implementations for Hardware-Constrained Sensor Network Nodes," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 231-244, Aug. 2007.
[7] H. Hou, C. Corbett, Y. Li, and R. Beyah, "Dynamic Energy-Based Encoding and Filtering in Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Military Comm. Conf. (MILCOM '07), Oct. 2007.
[8] L. Eschenauer and V.D. Gligor, "A Key-Management Scheme for Distributed Sensor Networks," Proc. Ninth ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security, pp. 41-4, 2002.
[9] M. Eltoweissy, M. Moharrum, and R. Mukkamala, "Dynamic Key Management in Sensor Networks," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 122-130, Apr. 2006.
[10] M. Zorzi and R. Rao, "Geographic Random Forwarding (GeRaF) for Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Multihop Performance," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 337-348, Oct.-Dec. 2003.
[11] M. Vuran and I. Akyildiz, "Cross-Layer Analysis of Error Control in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Third Ann. IEEE Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor, Mesh, and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON '06), vol. 2, pp. 585-594, Sept. 2006.
[12] F. Ye, H. Luo, S. Lu, and L. Zhang, "Statistical En-Route Filtering of Injected False Data in Sensor Networks," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 839-850, Apr. 2005.
[13] Z. Yu and Y. Guan, "A Dynamic En-Route Scheme for Filtering False Data Injection in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1-12, Apr. 2006.
[14] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, "Directed Diffusion: A Scalable and Robust Communication Paradigm for Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 56-67, Aug. 2002.
[15] K. Akkaya and M. Younis, "A Survey on Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks," Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 3, pp. 325-349, May 2005.
[16] Georgia Tech Sensor Network Simulator (GTSNetS), MANIACSGTNetS, 2007.
[17] S. Uluagac, R. Beyah, and J. Copeland, "Secure Source-Based Time Synchronization (SOBAS) for Wireless Sensor Networks," technical report, Comm. Systems Center, School of Electrical and Computer Eng., Georgia Inst. of Technology, http://users.ece. , 2009.
[18] R. Venugopalan et al., "Encryption Overhead in Embedded Systems and Sensor Network Nodes: Modeling and Analysis," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Compilers, Architecture, and Synthesis for Embedded Systems (CASES '03), pp. 188-197, 2003.
[19] C. Kraub, M. Schneider, K. Bayarou, and C. Eckert, "STEF: A Secure Ticket-Based En-Route Filtering Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES '07), pp. 310-317, Apr. 2007.
[20] M. Passing and F. Dressler, "Experimental Performance Evaluation of Cryptographic Algorithms on Sensor Nodes," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, pp. 882-887, Oct. 2006.
[21] M. Ma, "Resilience of Sink Filtering Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks," Computer Comm., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 55-65, 2006.
[22] J. Hyun and S. Kim, "Low Energy Consumption Security Method for Protecting Information of Wireless Sensor Networks," Advanced Web and Network Technologies, and Applications, vol. 3842, pp. 397-404, Springer, 2006.
[23] S. Zhu, S. Setia, S. Jajodia, and P. Ning, "An Interleaved Hop-by-Hop Authentication Scheme for Filtering of Injected False Data in Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Symp. Security and Privacy, 2004.
[24] A. Perrig, R. Szewczyk, V. Wen, D. Cullar, and J. Tygar, "Spins: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2001.
[25] M. Luk, G. Mezzour, A. Perrig, and V. Gligor, "Minisec: A Secure Sensor Network Communication Architecture," Proc. Sixth Int'l Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '07), pp. 479-488, Apr. 2007.
15 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool