The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.06 - June (2010 vol.9)
pp: 881-896
Francisco-Javier Simó-Reigadas , Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada
Andrés Martínez-Fernández , University Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada
Francisco-Javier Ramos-López , University Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada
Joaquín Seoane-Pascual , Polytechnical University of Madrid, Madrid
ABSTRACT
Most rural areas in developing countries are isolated due to the lack of appropriate low-cost communication technologies. Previous experiences have shown that IEEE 802.11 can be used for the deployment of large static mesh networks with only minor changes to the MAC layer that enable WiFi transceivers to work properly even for very long distances (up to 100 km in point to point links, and almost 40 km in point to multipoint setups). However, the impact of distance on performance of such long links has not been deeply analyzed. In addition, previous analytical models of IEEE 802.11 DCF cannot be applied because they implicitly assume that the propagation time can be neglected. This paper formally studies the impact of the distance on the behavior of IEEE 802.11 DCF and presents an analytical model of IEEE 802.11 DCF that accounts for distances correctly. The model is validated with simulations and within a controlled experimental framework, based on wireless channel emulation. Finally, we propose adjustments for ACKTimeout, CTSTimeout, SlotTime, and CW_{min} parameters that improve significantly the performance of DCF over long distances.
INDEX TERMS
IEEE 802.11 DCF, wireless wide-area networks, developing countries.
CITATION
Francisco-Javier Simó-Reigadas, Andrés Martínez-Fernández, Francisco-Javier Ramos-López, Joaquín Seoane-Pascual, "Modeling and Optimizing IEEE 802.11 DCF for Long-Distance Links", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.9, no. 6, pp. 881-896, June 2010, doi:10.1109/TMC.2010.27
REFERENCES
[1] I. 802.11-1999, "Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications," technical report, IEEE CS, 1999.
[2] I. 802.11b 1999, "Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Higher-Speed Physical Layer Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band," technical report, IEEE CS, 1999.
[3] I. 802.11g 2003, "Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Further Higher Data Rate Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band," technical report, IEEE CS, 2003.
[4] I. 802.11-2007, "Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, Rev. 2007," technial report, IEEE CS, 2007.
[5] F.J. Proenza, "The Road to Broadband Development in Developing Countries is through Competition Driven by Wireless and VoIP," Proc. Workshop Wireless Comm. and Development: A Global Perspective, Oct. 2005.
[6] M. Best and R. Roman, "Licence-Exempt Wireless Policies: Unleashing the Internet for Rural Development," Proc. Workshop Wireless Comm. and Development: A Global Perspective, Oct. 2005.
[7] E. Pietrosemoli, "Wireless Data Transmission in the Andes: Networking Merida State," Proc. Internet Soc. (ISOC) INET, June 1999.
[8] A.R. Guntis Barzdins and J. Tully, "Applications of High-Speed Wireless Solutions for Developing Countries: Lessons Learned in Latvia and Moldova," Proc. Internet Soc. (ISOC) INET, June 1999.
[9] J. Simó-Reigadas, P. Osuna-García, R. Quispe-Tacas, and D. Segundo Espinoza, "Application of IEEE 802.11 Technology for Health Isolated Rural Environments," Proc. Int'l Federation for Information Processing World Computer Congress-The World Congress on Information and Technology (IFIP WCC-WCIT), Aug. 2006.
[10] P. Bhagwat, B. Raman, and D. Sanghi, "Turning 802.11 Inside Out," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 34, Jan. 2004.
[11] K. Leung, M. Clark, B. McNair, Z. Kostic, L. Cimini, and J. Winters, "Outdoor IEEE 802.11 Cellular Networks: Radio and MAC Design and Their Performance," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 2673-2684, Sept. 2007.
[12] R. Patra, S. Nedevschi, S. Surana, A. Sheth, L. Subramanian, and E. Brewer, "WiLDNet: Design and Implementation of High Performance WiFi Based Long Distance Networks," Proc. USENIX Symp. Networked System Design and Implementation (NSDI), Apr. 2007.
[13] B. Raman and K. Chebrolu, "Design and Evaluation of a New MAC Protocol for Long-Distance 802.11 Mesh Networks," Proc. 11th Ann. Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, Aug. 2005.
[14] S. Salmerón-Ntutumu, J. Simó-Reigadas, and R. Patra, "Comparison of MAC Protocols for 802.11-Based Long Distance Networks," Proc. Workshop Wireless For Development (WIRELESS4D), Dec. 2008.
[15] F. Cali, M. Conti, and E. Gregori, "Dynamic Tuning of the IEEE 802.11 Protocol to Achieve a Theoretical Throughput Limit," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 785-799, Dec. 2000.
[16] G. Bianchi, "Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 535-547, Mar. 2000.
[17] G. Bianchi and I. Tinnirello, "Remarks on IEEE 802.11 DCF Performance Analysis," IEEE Comm. Letters, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 765-767, Aug. 2005.
[18] P. Chatzimisios, A. Boucouvalas, and V. Vitsas, "IEEE 802.11 Packet Delay: A Finite Retry Limit Analysis," Proc. IEEE Globecom, vol. 2, pp. 950-954, 2003.
[19] X.J. Dong and P. Varaiya, "Saturation Throughput Analysis of IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs for a Lossy Channel," IEEE Comm. Letters, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 100-102, Feb. 2005.
[20] J. Simó-Reigadas, P. Osuna-García, S. Lafuente-Sanz, A. Martínez-Fernández, and J. Seoane-Pascual, "The Design of a Wireless Solar-Powered Router for Rural Environments Isolated from Health Facilities," IEEE Wireless Comm., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 24-30, June 2008.
[21] M. Zennaro, C. Fonda, E. Pietrosemoli, A.S. Okay, R. Flickenger, and S. Radicella, "On a Long Wireless Link for Rural Telemedicine in Malawi," Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Open Access, Nov. 2008.
[22] G. Bianchi, "Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 535-547, Mar. 2000.
[23] G. Bianchi and I. Tinnirello, "Remarks on IEEE 802.11 DCF Performance Analysis," IEEE Comm. Letters, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 765-767, Aug. 2005.
[24] G. Bianchi, I. Tinnirello, and L. Scalia, "Understanding 802.11e Contention-Based Prioritization Mechanisms and Their Coexistence with Legacy 802.11 Stations," IEEE Network, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 28-34, July/Aug. 2005.
[25] J. Simó-Reigadas, C. Figuera-Pozuelo, J. Seoane-Pascual, and A. Martínez-Fernández, "Distance Limits in IEEE 802.11 for Rural Networks in Developing Countries," Proc. IEEE WRECOM, Oct. 2007.
[26] "Patch to NS-2.30 for Adaptation to Long Distances," http://download.ehas.org/ns22.30, 2010.
[27] H. Wu, Y. Peng, K. Long, S. Cheng, and J. Ma, "Performance of Reliable Transport Protocol Over IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs: Analysis and Enhancement," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 2, pp. 599-607, 2002.
[28] P. Chatzimisios, A. Boucouvalas, and V. Vitsas, "Throughput and Delay Analysis of IEEE 802.11 Protocol," Proc. IEEE Int'l Workshop Networked Appliances (IWNA), pp. 168-174, 2002.
[29] H. Chen and Y. Li, "Performance Model of IEEE 802.11 DCF with Variable Packet Length," IEEE Comm. Letters, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 186-188, Mar. 2004.
[30] "Network Simulator NS-2," http://isi.edu/nsnamns, 2010.
[31] "OPNET Modeler," http:/www.opnet.com, 2010.
30 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool