The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.05 - May (2010 vol.9)
pp: 703-718
Pradip De , University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington
Yonghe Liu , University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington
Sajal K. Das , University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington
ABSTRACT
Existing code update protocols for reprogramming nodes in a sensor network are either unsuitable or inefficient when used in a mobile environment. The prohibitive factor of uncertainty about a node's location due to their continuous movement coupled with the obvious constraint of a node's limited resources, pose daunting challenges to the design of an effective code dissemination protocol for mobile sensor networks. In this paper, we propose ReMo, an energy-efficient, multihop reprogramming protocol for mobile sensor networks. Without making any assumptions on the location of nodes, ReMo uses the LQI and RSSI measurements of received packets to estimate link qualities and relative distances with neighbors in order to select the best node for code exchange. The protocol is based on a probabilistic broadcast paradigm with the mobile nodes smoothly modifying their advertisement transmission rates based on the dynamic changes in network density, thereby saving valuable energy. Contrary to previous protocols, ReMo downloads pages regardless of their order, thus, exploiting the mobility of the nodes and facilitating a fast transfer of the code. Our simulation results show significant improvement in reprogramming time and number of message transmissions over other existing protocols under different settings of network mobility. Our implementation results of ReMo on a testbed of SunSPOTs also showcase its better performance than existing reprogramming protocols in terms of transfer time and number of message transmissions.
INDEX TERMS
Code dissemination, network reprogramming, mobile sensor network.
CITATION
Pradip De, Yonghe Liu, Sajal K. Das, "Energy-Efficient Reprogramming of a Swarm of Mobile Sensors", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.9, no. 5, pp. 703-718, May 2010, doi:10.1109/TMC.2009.159
REFERENCES
[1] Sun Small Programmable Object Technology (Sun SPOT), http:/www.sunspotworld.com, 2009.
[2] "Mote In-Network Programming User Reference Version 20030315," technical report, Crossbow Technology, Inc., http://webs.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/tinyos-1.x/ docXnp.pdf, 2003.
[3] M.U. Arumugam, "Infuse: A TDMA Based Reprogramming Service for Sensor Networks," Proc. Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, pp. 281-282, 2004.
[4] T. Camp, J. Boleng, and V. Davies, "A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research," Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 483-502, 2002.
[5] C. Chong and S.P. Kumar, "Sensor Networks: Evolution, Opportunities, and Challenges," Proc. IEEE, no. 8, pp. 1247-1256, 2003.
[6] P. De, Y. Liu, and S.K. Das, "ReMo: An Energy Efficient Reprogramming Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm., pp. 60-69, 2008.
[7] J. Deng, R. Han, and S. Mishra, "Secure Code Distribution in Dynamically Programmable Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Conf. Information Processing in Sensor Networks, pp. 292-300, 2006.
[8] P.K. Dutta, J.W. Hui, D.C. Chu, and D.E. Culler, "Securing the Deluge Network Programming System," Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Information Processing in Sensor Networks, pp. 326-333, 2006.
[9] J.W. Hui and D.E. Culler, "The Dynamic Behavior of A Data Dissemination Protocol for Network Programming at Scale," Proc. Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, pp. 81-94, http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/sensyssensys2004.html , 2004.
[10] Texas Instruments, "Chipcon CC2420 Datasheet," http://focus.ti. com/lit/ds/symlinkcc2420.pdf ," 2007.
[11] P. Kyasanur, R.R. Choudhury, and I. Gupta, "Smart Gossip: An Adaptive Gossip-Based Broadcasting Service for Sensor Networks," Proc. Conf. Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, pp. 91-100, 2006.
[12] P.E. Lanigan, R. Gandhi, and P. Narasimhan, "Sluice: Secure Dissemination of Code Updates in Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, p. 53, 2006.
[13] P. Levis and D. Culler, "The Firecracker Protocol," Proc. ACM SIGOPS European Workshop, p. 3, 2004.
[14] P. Levis, N. Patel, D. Culler, and S. Shenker, "Trickle: A Self-Regulating Algorithm for Code Propagation and Maintenance in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Conf. Symp. Networked Systems Design and Implementation, p. 2, 2004.
[15] K. Lin and P. Levis, "Data Discovery and Dissemination with DIP," Proc. Int'l Conf. Information Processing in Sensor Networks, pp. 433-444, 2008.
[16] V. Naik, A. Arora, P. Sinha, and H. Zhang, "Sprinkler: A Reliable and Energy Efficient Data Dissemination Service for Extreme Scale Wireless Networks of Embedded Devices," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 777-789, July 2007.
[17] E. Shih, P. Bahl, and M.J. Sinclair, "Wake on Wireless: An Event Driven Energy Saving Strategy for Battery Operated Devices," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 160-171, 2002.
[18] D. Simon and C. Cifuentes, "The Squawk Virtual Machine: Java On the Bare Metal," Proc. Companion to the 20th Ann. ACM SIGPLAN Conf. Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications, pp. 150-151, 2005.
[19] D.E.T. Stathopoulos, J. Heidemann, "A Remote Code Update Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks," technical report, F17210EC8E10A05BE0306180528D7B54, Nov. 2003.
[20] Y.-C. Tseng, S.-Y. Ni, and E.-Y. Shih, "Adaptive Approaches to Relieving Broadcast Storms in A Wireless Multihop Mobile Ad Hoc Network," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 545-557, May 2003.
[21] L. Wang, "MNP: Multihop Network Reprogramming Service for Sensor Networks," Proc. Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, pp. 285-286, 2004.
[22] L. Wang and S.S. Kulkarni, "Gappa: Gossip Based Multi-Channel Reprogramming for Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, pp. 119-134, 2006.
[23] X. Zeng, R. Bagrodia, and M. Gerla, "Glomosim: A Library for Parallel Simulation of Large-Scale Wireless Networks," Proc. Workshop Parallel and Distributed Simulation, pp. 154-161, 1998.
[24] Q. Zhang and D.P. Agrawal, "Dynamic Probabilistic Broadcasting in Manets," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 220-233, 2005.
16 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool