The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - April (2010 vol.9)
pp: 479-490
Yan Sun , University of Kentucky, Lexington
Qiangfeng Jiang , University of Kentucky, Lexington
Mukesh Singhal , University of Kentucky, Lexington
In mobile ad hoc and sensor networks, since all nodes are mobile and there is no fixed infrastructure, the design of routing protocols becomes one of the most challenging issues. In recent years, geographic routing protocols have been widely used. Most of them, e.g., greedy-face-greedy routing protocols, need nodes to construct planar graphs as the underlying graphs. In this paper, we propose an Edge Constrained Localized Delaunay graph, denoted by ECLDel, as the underlying graph for geographic routing. We prove that the ECLDel is a planar t-spanner of the unit-disk graph. Geographic routing on ECLDel is as efficient as on the previous work of PLDel in terms of path length (hop count). However, the construction of ECLDel graph is far more simple and it converges faster. This is due to the following two reasons: First, we significantly reduce the number of messages broadcast by each node from five rounds (each round may contain several messages) to only two messages; second, we define two new types of edges, the Intersecting Gabriel (IG) edges and the Unaware Intersection (UI) edges, which are constrained in the ECLDel graph. These edges help significantly reduce the size of messages broadcast by each node. The decrease of both the number and the size of messages broadcast by each node reduces the communication cost, and saves the network bandwidth and node power, which are desirable for mobile ad hoc and sensor networks. Our simulation results show that the average number of messages and the average size of messages broadcast by each node are, respectively, 65 and 42 percent less in the construction of ECLDel than that in PLDel.
Mobile ad hoc and sensor networks, geographic routing, unit-disk graph, planar, t-spanner, Delaunay triangulation.
Yan Sun, Qiangfeng Jiang, Mukesh Singhal, "An Edge-Constrained Localized Delaunay Graph for Geographic Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.9, no. 4, pp. 479-490, April 2010, doi:10.1109/TMC.2009.133
[1] C. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, "Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Oct. 1994.
[2] S. Murthy and J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, "An Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Networks," ACM Mobile Networks and Applications J., special issue on routing in mobile communication networks, vol. 1, pp. 183-197, Oct. 1996.
[3] C. Perkins, "Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing," Proc. IEEE Military Comm. Conf. (MILCOM '97), Nov. 1997.
[4] D.B. Johnson and D.A. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Mobile Computing, vol. 353, Springer, 1996.
[5] P. Sinha, R. Sivakumar, and V. Bharghavan, "CEDAR: A Core-Extraction Distributed Ad Hoc Routing Algorithm," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 1, pp. 202-209, 1999.
[6] E. Royer and C. Toh, "A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad-Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks," IEEE Personal Comm., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 46-54, Apr. 1999.
[7] J. Broch, D. Maltz, D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and J. Jetcheva, "A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 85-97, 1998.
[8] S. Ramanathan and M. Steenstrup, "A Survey of Routing Techniques for Mobile Communication Networks," ACM/Baltzer Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 1, pp. 89-104, 1996.
[9] K. Akkaya and M. Younis, "A Survey of Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks," Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 325-349, 2005.
[10] J. AL-Karaki and A. Kamal, "Routing Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey," IEEE Wireless Comm., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 6-28, Dec. 2004.
[11] E. Kranakis, H. Singh, and J. Urrutia, "Compass Routing on Geometric Networks," Proc. 11th Canadian Conf. Computational Geometry: An Introduction, pp. 51-54, 1999.
[12] H. Takagi and L. Kleinrock, "Optimal Transmission Ranges for Randomly Distributed Packet Radio Terminals," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 246-257, Mar. 1984.
[13] I. Stojmenovic and X. Lin, "Loop-Free Hybrid Single-Path/Flooding Routing Algorithms with Guaranteed Delivery for Wireless Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1023-1032, Oct. 2001.
[14] P. Bose, P. Morin, I. Stojmenovic, and J. Urrutia, "Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Comm., 1999.
[15] B. Karp and H.T. Kung, "GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM/IEEE Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, 2000.
[16] F. Kuhn, R. Wattenhofer, and A. Zollinger, "Asymptotically Optimal Geometric Mobile Ad-Hoc Routing," Proc. Sixth Int'l Workshop Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Comm. (DIALM '02), 2002.
[17] F. Kuhn, R. Wattenhofer, Y. Zhang, and A. Zollinger, "Geometric Ad-Hoc Routing: Of Theory and Practice," Proc. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC '03), July 2003.
[18] I. Stojmenovic, "Position-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 128-134, July 2002.
[19] S. Giordano, I. Stojmenovic, and L. Blazevic, "Position Based Routing Algorithms for Ad Hoc Networks: A Taxonomy," Ad Hoc Wireless Networking, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.
[20] M. Mauve and J. Widmer, "A Survey on Position-Based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Network, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 30-39, Nov. 2001.
[21] S. Capkun, M. Hamdi, and J. Hubaux, "Gps-Free Positioning in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Science (HICSS), Jan. 2001.
[22] J. Hightower and G. Borriello, "Location Systems for Ubiquitous Computing," Computer, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 57-66, Aug. 2001.
[23] S. Ratnasamy, B. Karp, S. Shenker, D. Estrin, R. Govindan, L. Yin, and F. Yu, "Data-Centric Storage in Sensornets with GHT, a Geographic Hash Table," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 8, pp. 427-442, 2003.
[24] S. Shenker, S. Ratnasamy, B. Karp, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, "Data-Centric Storage in Sensornets," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM HotNets, 2002.
[25] M. Li, W. Lee, and A. Sivasubramaniam, "Efficient Peer-to-Peer Information Sharing over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. Second Workshop Emerging Applications for Wireless and Mobile Access, 2004.
[26] X. Li, Y.J. Kim, R. Govindan, and W. Hong, "Multi-Dimensional Range Queries in Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '03), Nov. 2003.
[27] R. Sarkar, X. Zhu, and J. Gao, "Double Rulings for Information Brokerage in Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, Sept. 2006.
[28] G. Finn, "Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks," ISI Research Report ISU/RR-87-180, Mar. 1987.
[29] L. Zou, M. Lu, and Z. Xiong, "A Distributed Algorithm for the Dead End Problem of Location Based Routing in Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1509-1522, July 2005.
[30] J. Bondy and U. Murty, Graph Theory with Applications. Elsevier Science Ltd., 1976.
[31] K. Gabriel and R. Sokal, "A New Statistical Approach to Geographic Variation Analysis," Systematic Zoology, vol. 18, pp. 259-278, 1969.
[32] G. Toussaint, "The Relative Neighborhood Graph of Finite Planar Set," Pattern Recognition, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 261-268, 1980.
[33] X.-Y. Li, G. Calinescu, and P.-J. Wan, "Distributed Construction of a Planar Spanner and Routing for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2002.
[34] J. Gao, L.J. Guibas, J. Hershberger, L. Zhang, and A. Zhu, "Geometric Spanners for Routing in Mobile Networks," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 174-185, Jan. 2005.
[35] Y. Wang and X.-Y. Li, "Localized Construction of Bounded Degree and Planar Spanner for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 11, pp. 161-175, 2006.
[36] F. Araujo and L. Rodrigues, "Fast Localized Delaunay Triangulation," Proc. Int'l Conf. Principle of Distributed Systems (OPODIS '04), Dec. 2004.
[37] W. Wang, X.-Y. Li, K. Moaveninejad, Y. Wang, and W.-Z. Song, "The Spanning Ratios of Beta-Skeleton," Proc. Canadian Conf. Computational Geometry (CCCG '03), 2003.
[38] F.P. Preparata and M.I. Shamos, Computational Geometry: An Introduction. Springer-Verlag, 1985.
[39] D. Dobkin, S. Fredman, and K. Supowit, "Delaunay Graphs are Almost as Good as Complete Graphs," Discrete and Computational Geometry, vol. 5, pp. 399-407, 1990.
[40] S. Fortune, "A Sweepline Algorithm for Voronoi Diagrams," Algorithmica, vol. 2, pp. 153-174, 1987.
[41] R. Dwyer, "A Faster Divide-and-Conquer Algorithm for Constructing Delaunay Triangulations," Algorithmica, vol. 2, pp. 137-151, 1987.
[42] L. Guibas and J. Stolfi, "Primitives for the Manipulation of General Subdivisions and the Computation of Voronoi Diagrams," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 4, pp. 75-123, 1985.
[43] P. Boone, E. Chavez, L. Gleitzky, E. Kranakis, J. Opatrny, G. Salazar, and J. Urrutia, "Morelia Test: Improving the Efficiency of the Gabriel Test and Face Routing in Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. Silencing RNAs: Organisers and Coordinators of Complexity in Eukaryotic Organisms (SIROCCO), pp. 23-34, 2004.
[44] L. Hu, "Topology Control for Multihop Packet Radio Networks," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1474-1481, Oct. 1993.
[45] A.-C. Yao, "On Constructing Minimum Spanning Trees in k-Dimensional Spaces and Related Problems," SIAM J. Computing, vol. 11, pp. 721-736, 1982.
[46] J. Mark Keil and C.A. Gutwin, "Classes of Graphs which Approximate the Complete Euclidean Graph," Discrete Computational Geometry, vol. 7, pp. 13-28, 1992.
[47] R. Wattenhofer, L. Li, P. Bahl, and Y.-M. Wang, "Distributed Topology Control for Wireless Multihop Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.
[48] X.-Y. Li, P.-J. Wan, and Y. Wang, "Power Efficient and Sparse Spanner for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Comm. and Networks (ICCCN '01), pp. 564-567, 2001.
[49] X.-Y. Li, P.-J. Wan, Y. Wang, and O. Frieder, "Sparse Power Efficient Topology for Wireless Networks," Proc. IEEE Ann. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences (HICSS), 2002.
23 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool