The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.01 - January (2010 vol.9)
pp: 44-59
Vinod Namboodiri , Wichita State University
Energy consumption of portable RFID readers is becoming an important issue as applications of RFID systems pervade many aspects of our lives. Surprisingly, however, these systems are not energy-aware with the focus till date being on reducing the time to read all tags by the reader. In this work, we consider the problem of tag arbitration in RFID systems with the aim of designing energy-aware anticollision protocols. We explore the effectiveness of using multiple time slots per node of a binary search tree through three anticollision protocols. We further develop an analytical framework to predict the performance of our protocols and enable protocol parameter selection. We demonstrate that all three protocols provide significant energy savings both at the reader and tags (if they are active tags) compared to the existing Query Tree protocol, while sharing the deterministic property of the latter. Further, we show that our protocols provide similar benefits even with correlated tag IDs.
RFID MAC, energy-aware anticollision, binary tree protocol.
Vinod Namboodiri, "Energy-Aware Tag Anticollision Protocols for RFID Systems", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.9, no. 1, pp. 44-59, January 2010, doi:10.1109/TMC.2009.96
[1] M. Jo, C.-G. Lim, and E.W. Zimmers, “RFID Tag Detection on a Water Object Using a Backpropagation Learning Machine,” KSII Trans. Internet and Information Systems, vol. 1, pp. 19-32, 2007.
[2] M. Jo and H. Youn, “Intelligent Recognition of RFID Tag Position,” Electronics Letters, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 308-310, 2008.
[3] J.-J. Kang, D.-J. Lee, C.-C. Chen, J. Whitaker, and E. Rothwell, “Compact Mobile RFID Antenna Design and Analysis Using Photonic-Assisted Vector Near-Field Characterization,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. RFID, pp. 81-88, Apr. 2008.
[4] K. Finkenzeller, RFID Handbook: Fundamentals and Applications in Contactless Smart Cards and Identification. John Wiley and Sons, 2003.
[5] D. Bertsekas and R. Gallagher, Data Networks, second ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1992.
[6] MIT Auto-ID Center, “Draft Protocol Specification for a 900 MHz Class of Radio Frequency Identification Tag,” Feb. 2003.
[7] C. Law, K. Lee, and K.Y. Siu, “Efficient Memoryless Protocol for Tag Identification,” Proc. Discrete Algorithms and Methods for MOBILE Computing and Comm. (DIALM), pp. 75-84, Aug. 2000.
[8] N. Abramson, “The Aloha System—Another Alternative for Computer Communications,” Proc. AFIPS Fall Joint Computer Conf., vol. 37, pp. 281-285, 1970.
[9] R. Metcalfe, “Steady State Analysis of a Slotted and Controlled Aloha System with Blocking,” Proc. Sixth Hawaii Conf. System Science, 1973.
[10] V. Anantharam, “The Stability Region of the Finite-User Slotted ALOHA Protocol,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 535-540, May 1991.
[11] F. Schoute, “Dynamic Frame Length Aloha,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 565-568, Apr. 1983.
[12] J.E. Wieselthier, A. Ephremides, and L. Michaels, “An Exact Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Framed ALOHA with Capture,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 125-137, Feb. 1989.
[13] “EPC Radio Frequency Identity Protocols Class-1 Generation-2 UHF RFID Protocol for Communications at 860 MHz-960 MHz, Version 1.0.9.”
[14] C. Floerkemeier and M. Wille, “Bayesian Transmission Strategy for Framed ALOHA Based RFID Protocols,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. RFID (RFID '07), Mar. 2007.
[15] S.-R. Lee, S.-D. Joo, and C.-W. Lee, “An Enhanced Dynamic Framed Slotted Aloha Algorithm for RFID Tag Identification,” Proc. Mobiquitous, pp. 98-113, 2005.
[16] H. Vogt, “Efficient Object Identification with Passive RFID Tags,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing, pp. 98-113, 2002.
[17] D. Hush and C. Wood, “Analysis of Tree Algorithms for RFID Arbitration,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Theory, p. 107, 1998.
[18] J.L. Capetanakis, “Tree Algorithms for Packet Broadcast Channels,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. IT-25, no. 5, pp. 505-515, Sept. 1979.
[19] J. Moseley and P. Humblet, “A Class of Efficient Contention Resolution Algorithms for Multiple Access Channels,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 145-151, Feb. 1985.
[20] M.A. Bonuccelli, F. Lonetti, and F. Martelli, “Exploiting ID Knowledge for Tag Identification in RFID Networks,” Proc. Workshop Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous Networks (Pe-WASUN '07), Oct. 2007.
[21] J. Myung and W. Lee, “Adaptive Binary Splitting: A RFID Tag Collision Arbitration Protocol for Tag Identification,” ACM Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 711-722, 2006.
[22] A. Sahoo, S. Iyer, and N. Bhandari, “Improving RFID Systems to Read Tags Efficiently,” technical report, KRSIT, IIT Bombay, June 2006.
[23] D.K. Klair, K.-W. Chin, and R. Raad, “An Investigation into the Energy Efficiency of Pure and Slotted Aloha Based RFID Anti-Collision Protocols,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM '07), pp. 1-4, June 2007.
[24] F. Zhou, C. Chen, D. Jin, C. Huang, and H. Min, “Evaluating and Optimizing Power Consumption of Anti-Collision Protocols for Applications in RFID Systems,” Proc. 2004 Int'l Symp. Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED '04), pp. 357-362, 2004.
[25] D.R. Hush, “A Comparison of Arbitration Algorithms for RFID,” technical report, Micron Comm., Inc., 1997.
[26] “EPC Generation 1 Tag Data Standards Version 1.1 Rev. 1.27, EPC Global Inc. Standard Specification,” May 2005.
[27] D. Simplot-Ryl, I. Stojmenovic, A. Micic, and A. Nayak, “A Hybrid Randomized Protocol for RFID Tag Identification,” Sensor Rev., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 147-154, 2006.
[28] M. Kodialam and T. Nandagopal, “Fast and Reliable Estimation Schemes in RFID Systems,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 322-333, Sept. 2006.
23 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool