The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.11 - November (2009 vol.8)
pp: 1441-1453
Pi-Cheng Hsiu , National Taiwan University, Taipei
Tei-Wei Kuo , National Taiwan University, Taipei
Routing problems have become highly challenging because of the popularity of mobile devices. This paper targets power-aware routing when network topologies and data traffic may change quickly in an unpredictable way. We propose a distributed algorithm and its realization to maximize the minimum residual energy of all the nodes for each multicast, where no global information is assumed to be efficiently maintained at any node. A transient multicast tree is established on demand and derived based on the autonomous decisions of intermediate nodes. We prove that the derived tree is loop-free and theoretically optimal in the maximization of minimum residual energy. The performance of the proposed protocol was evaluated over NS2 with a series of simulations for which we have very encouraging results.
Maximum-residual routing, routing protocols, mobile ad hoc networks.
Pi-Cheng Hsiu, Tei-Wei Kuo, "A Maximum-Residual Multicast Protocol for Large-Scale Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.8, no. 11, pp. 1441-1453, November 2009, doi:10.1109/TMC.2009.54
[1] Ansoft—HFSS,, 2009.
[2] Intel® PRO/Wireless 2011B LAN PC Card, com/support/wireless/ wlan/pro2011wireless.pdf, 2008.
[3] Texas Instruments, Chipcon CC2420, , 2009.
[4] M. Abolhasan, T.A. Wysocki, and E. Dutkiewicz, “A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 2, pp. 1-22, 2004.
[5] D.P. Agrawal and Q.-A. Zeng, Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems, pp. 59-77, 297-300. Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2003.
[6] C. Ambühl, “An Optimal Bound for the MST Algorithm to Compute Energy Efficient Broadcast Trees in Wireless Networks,” Proc. Int'l Colloquium Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP '05), pp. 1139-1150, 2005.
[7] D. Bertsekas and R. Callager, Data Networks, pp. 325-333. Prentice Hall, Inc., 1987.
[8] T. Camp, J. Boleng, and V. Davies, “A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research,” Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing, vol. 2, pp. 483-502, 2002.
[9] I. Caragiannis, M. Flammini, and L. Moscardelli, “An Exponential Improvement on the MST Heuristic for Minimum Energy Broadcasting in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. Int'l Colloquium Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP '07), pp. 447-458, 2007.
[10] G. C$\check{\rm a}$ linescu, S. Kapoor, A. Olshevsky, and A. Zelikovsky, “Network Lifetime and Power Assignment in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. European Symp. Algorithms, pp. 114-126, 2003.
[11] J. Chang and L. Tassiulas, “Maximum Lifetime Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 609-619, Aug. 2004.
[12] J.-H. Chang and L. Tassiulas, “Energy Conserving Routing in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 22-31, 2000.
[13] J.J. Chang, P.C. Hsiu, and T.W. Kuo, “Search-Oriented Deployment Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC '07), pp. 164-171, 2007.
[14] M. $\check{\rm C}$ agalj, J. Hubaux, and C. Enz, “Minimum-Energy Broadcast in All-Wireless Networks: NP-Completeness and Distribution Issues,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 172-182, 2002.
[15] C.-C. Chiang, M. Gerla, and L. Zhang, “Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol (FGMP) for Multihop, Mobile Wireless Networks,” ACM/Baltzer J. Cluster Computing, vol. 1, pp. 187-196, 1998.
[16] A.E.F. Clementi, P. Crescenzi, P. Penna, G. Rossi, and P. Vocca, “On the Complexity of Computing Minimum Energy Consumption Broadcast Subgraphs,” Proc. Ann. Symp. Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS '01), pp. 121-131, 2001.
[17] T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, and R.L. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms, pp. 532-535. MIT Press, 1990.
[18] S. Corson and J. Macker, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations,” IETF RFC 2501, 1999.
[19] C. de M. Cordeiro, H. Gossain, and D.P. Agrawal, “Multicast over Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Present and Future Directions,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 52-59, Jan./Feb. 2003.
[20] K. Fall and K. Varadhan, The ns Manual. UC Berkeley and LBL and USC/ISI and Xerox PARC, 2007.
[21] J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves and E.L. Madruga, “The Core-Assisted Mesh Protocol,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 17, no. 8, pp.1380-1994, Aug. 1999.
[22] Z. Genc and O. Ozkasap, “EraMobile: Epidemic-Based Reliable and Adaptive Multicast for MANETs,” Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC '07), pp. 4395-4400, 2007.
[23] IEEE 802.11 Working Group, ANSI/IEEE Std 802.11, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, IEEE, 1999.
[24] E. Huang, W. Hu, J. Crowcroft, and I. Wassell, “Towards Commercial Mobile Ad Hoc Network Applications: A Radio Dispatch System,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 355-365, 2005.
[25] L. Ji and M.S. Corson, “A Lightweight Adaptive Multicast Algorithm,” Proc. IEEE Global Comm. Conf. (GLOBECOM '98), pp.1036-1042, 1998.
[26] L. Ji and M.S. Corson, “Differential Destination Multicast—A MANET Multicast Routing Protocol for Small Groups,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1192-1201, 2001.
[27] D.B. Johnson and D.A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Mobile Computing, pp. 153-181, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.
[28] H. Karl and A. Willig, Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks, pp. 232-250. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
[29] B. Krishnamachari, D. Estrin, and S.B. Wicker, “The Impact of Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '02), pp. 575-578, 2002.
[30] T. Kunz and E. Cheng, “On-Demand Multicasting in Ad-Hoc Networks: Comparing AODV and ODMRP,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '02), pp. 453-454, 2002.
[31] J.F. Kurose and K.W. Ross, Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet, second ed., pp. 451-455, 484-486. Addison Wesley, 2003.
[32] S.-J. Lee, M. Gerla, and C.-C. Chiang, “On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol,” Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC '99), pp. 1298-1304, 1999.
[33] S.-J. Lee, W. Su, J. Hsu, M. Gerla, and R. Bagrodia, “A Performance Comparison Study of Ad Hoc Wireless Multicast Protocols,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 565-574, 2000.
[34] Q. Li, J. Aslam, and D. Rus, “Online Power-Aware Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 91-107, 2001.
[35] B. Liang and Z.J. Haas, “Predictive Distance-Based Mobility Management for PCS Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1377-1384, 1999.
[36] C.P. Low and L.W. Goh, “On the Construction of Energy-Efficient Maximum Residual Battery Capacity Broadcast Trees in Static Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Computer Comm., vol. 29, pp. 93-102, 2005.
[37] P. Mohapatra and S. Krishnamurthy, Ad Hoc Networks: Technologies and Protocols, pp. 1-22. Springer, 2005.
[38] R. Morris, J. Jannotti, M.F. Kaashoek, J. Li, and D. Decouto, “CarNet: A Scalable Ad Hoc Wireless Network System,” Proc. ACM SIGOPS, pp. 61-65, 2000.
[39] A. Orda and B.-A. Yassour, “Maximum-Lifetime Routing Algorithms for Networks with Omnidirectional and Directional Antennas,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 426-437, 2005.
[40] C.E. Perkins and E.M. Royer, “Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (WMCSA '99), pp. 90-100, 1999.
[41] E.M. Royer and C.E. Perkins, “Multicast Operation of the Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 207-218, 1999.
[42] E.M. Royer and C.E. Perkins, “Multi Cast Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (MAODV) Routing,” Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-maodv-00.txt, work in progress, 2000.
[43] A. Sankar and Z. Liu, “Maximum Lifetime Routing in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1089-1097, 2004.
[44] S. Singh, C.S. Raghavendra, and J. Stepanek, “Power-Aware Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Comm. (PIMRC '99), pp. 22-31, 1999.
[45] S. Singh, M. Woo, and C.S. Raghavendra, “Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 181-190, 1998.
[46] G. Tel, Introduction to Distributed Algorithms, second ed., pp. 121-123. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000.
[47] C.-K. Toh, “Maximum Battery Life Routing to Support Ubiquitous Mobile Computing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 138-147, June 2001.
[48] Y. Toor, P. Muhlethaler, and A. Laouiti, “Vehicle Ad Hoc Networks: Applications and Related Technical Issues,” IEEE Comm. Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 74-88, 2008.
[49] K. Viswanath, K. Obraczka, and G. Tsudik, “Exploring Mesh- and Tree-Based Multicast Routing Protocols for MANETs,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 28-42, Jan. 2006.
[50] P.-J. Wan, G. C$\check{\rm a}$ linescu, X.-Y. Li, and O. Frieder, “Minimum-Energy Broadcast Routing in Static Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1162-1171, 2001.
[51] J.E. Wieselthier, G.D. Nguyen, and A. Ephremides, “On the Construction of Energy-Efficient Broadcast and Multicast Trees in Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 585-594, 2000.
[52] C.W. Wu and Y.C. Tay, “AMRIS: A Multicast Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE Military Comm. Conf. (MILCOM '99), pp. 25-29, 1999.
[53] J. Xie, R.R. Talpade, A. Mcauley, and R. Talpade, “AMRoute: AdHoc Multicast Routing Protocol,” ACM/Springer Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET '02), vol. 7, pp. 429-439, 2002.
[54] Q. Xie, C.-T. Lea, M.J. Golin, and R. Fleischer, “Maximum Residual Energy Routing with Reverse Energy Cost,” Proc. IEEE Global Comm. Conf. (GLOBECOM '03), pp. 564-569, 2003.
[55] W. Ye, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1567-1576, 2002.
[56] Y.F. Zhu and T. Kunz, “MAODV Implementation for NS-2.26,” technical report, Systems and Computer Eng., Carleton Univ., 2004.
41 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool