The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.10 - October (2009 vol.8)
pp: 1384-1396
Injong Rhee , North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Ajit Warrier , North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Jeongki Min , North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Lisong Xu , University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln
ABSTRACT
This paper presents a distributed implementation of RAND, a randomized time slot scheduling algorithm, called DRAND. DRAND runs in O(\delta ) time and message complexity where \delta is the maximum size of a two-hop neighborhood in a wireless network while message complexity remains O(\delta ), assuming that message delays can be bounded by an unknown constant. DRAND is the first fully distributed version of RAND. The algorithm is suitable for a wireless network where most nodes do not move, such as wireless mesh networks and wireless sensor networks. We implement the algorithm in TinyOS and demonstrate its performance in a real testbed of Mica2 nodes. The algorithm does not require any time synchronization and is shown to be effective in adapting to local topology changes without incurring global overhead in the scheduling. Because of these features, it can also be used even for other scheduling problems such as frequency or code scheduling (for FDMA or CDMA) or local identifier assignment for wireless networks where time synchronization is not enforced. We further evaluate the effect of the time-varying nature of wireless links on the conflict-free property of DRAND-assigned time slots. This experiment is conducted on a 55-node testbed consisting of the more recent MicaZ sensor nodes.
INDEX TERMS
Wireless ad hoc networks, medium access control, network performance.
CITATION
Injong Rhee, Ajit Warrier, Jeongki Min, Lisong Xu, "DRAND: Distributed Randomized TDMA Scheduling for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.8, no. 10, pp. 1384-1396, October 2009, doi:10.1109/TMC.2009.59
REFERENCES
[1] Chipcon Corporation, CC1000 Low Power FSK Transceiver, 2005.
[2] IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access Standards, Specifications for the Global Deployment of Broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks, IEEE, 2004.
[3] IEEE 802.11s, A Draft IEEE 802.11 Amendment for Mesh Networking, IEEE, 2004.
[4] ZigBee Alliance, IEEE 802.15.4, ZigBee Standard, 2004.
[5] L. Bao and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “A New Approach to Channel Access Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 210-221, 2001.
[6] L. Breslau, D. Estrin, K. Fall, S. Floyd, J. Heidemann, A. Helmy, P. Huang, S. McCanne, K. Varadhan, Y. Xu, and H. Yu, “Advances in Network Simulation,” Computer, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 59-67, May 2000.
[7] I. Chlamtac and A. Farag, “Making Transmission Schedules Immune to Topology Changes in Multi-Hop Packet Radio Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 23-29, Feb. 1994.
[8] B. Crow, I. Widjaja, J.G. Kim, and P. Sakai, “IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 35, no. 9, pp.116-126, Sept. 1997.
[9] S. Gandham, M. Dawande, and R. Prakash, “Link Scheduling in Sensor Networks: Distributed Edge Coloring Revisited,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2005.
[10] J. Shen, I. Nikolaidis, and J. Harms, “A DAG-Based Approach to Wireless Scheduling,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '05), 2005.
[11] J. Grnkvist, “Assignment Methods for Spatial Reuse TDMA,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 119-124, 2000.
[12] M. Gruteser and D. Grunwald, “Enhancing Location Privacy in Wireless Lan through Disposable Interface Identifiers: A Quantitative Analysis,” Proc. First ACM Int'l Workshop Wireless Mobile Applications and Services on WLAN Hotspots (WMASH '03), pp. 46-55, 2003.
[13] T. Herman and S. Tixeuil, “A Distributed TDMA Slot Assignment Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. First Workshop Algorithmic Aspects of Wireless Sensor Networks (AlgoSensors '04), pp. 45-58, July 2004.
[14] J. Hill, R. Szewczyk, A. Woo, S. Hollar, D. Culler, and K. Pister, “System Architecture Directions for Network Sensors,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS '00), Nov. 2000.
[15] B. Hull, K. Jamieson, and H. Balakrishnan, “Mitigating Congestion in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '04), pp. 134-147, 2004.
[16] S.S. Kulkarni and M.U. Arumugam, “TDMA Service for Sensor Networks,” Proc. 24th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems Workshops—W7: EC (ICDCSW '04), pp. 604-609, 2004.
[17] M. Luby, “Removing Randomness in Parallel Computation without Processor Penality,” J. Computer and System Sciences, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 250-286, Oct. 1993.
[18] T. Moscibroda and R. Wattenhofer, “Coloring Unstructured Radio Networks,” Proc. 17th ACM Symp. Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA '05), July 2005.
[19] S. Parthasarathy and R. Gandhi, “Distributed Algorithms for Coloring and Domination in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS '04), pp. 447-459, 2004.
[20] R.K. Patro and B. Mohan, “Mobile Agent Based TDMA Slot Assignment Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC '05), vol. II, pp. 663-667, 2005.
[21] J. Polastre, J. Hill, and D. Culler, “Versatile Low Power Media Access for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (ACM SenSys '04), pp. 95-107, 2004.
[22] S. Ramanathan, “A Unified Framework and Algorithms for (T/F/C)DMA Channel Assignment in Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 900-907, 1997.
[23] I. Rhee, A. Warrier, M. Aia, and J. Min, “Z-MAC: A Hybrid MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '05), pp. 90-101, 2005.
[24] R. Rozovsky and P.R. Kumar, “SEEDEX: A MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 67-75, 2001.
[25] T. Salonidis and L. Tassiulas, “Distributed Dynamic Scheduling for End-to-End Rate Guarantees in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 145-156, 2005.
[26] W. Ye, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “An Energy-Efficient Mac Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1567-1576, June 2002.
[27] G. Zhou, T. He, S. Krishnamurthy, and J.A. Stankovic, “Impact of Radio Irregularity on Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys '04), pp.125-138, 2004.
[28] C. Zhu and M. Corson, “An Evolutionary-TDMA Scheduling Protocol (E-TDMA) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Advanced Telecomm. and Information Distribution Research Program (ATIRP '00), Mar. 2000.
[29] C. Zhu and M.S. Corson, “A Five-Phase Reservation Protocol (FPRP) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 371-384, 2001.
[30] I. Rhee, A. Warrier, J. Min, and L. Xu, “DRAND: Distributed Randomized TDMA Scheduling for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 190-201, 2006.
[31] P. Djukic and S. Valaee, “Distributed Link Scheduling for TDMA Mesh Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '07), 2007.
[32] P. Djukic and S. Valaee, “Link Scheduling for Minimum Delay in Spatial Re-Use TDMA,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007.
23 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool