This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Route Stability in MANETs under the Random Direction Mobility Model
September 2009 (vol. 8 no. 9)
pp. 1167-1179
Giovanna Carofiglio, Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs, France
Carla-Fabiana Chiasserini, Politecnico di Torino, Torino
Michele Garetto, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino
Emilio Leonardi, Politecnico di Torino, Torino
A fundamental issue arising in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is the selection of the optimal path between any two nodes. A method that has been advocated to improve routing efficiency is to select the most stable path so as to reduce the latency and the overhead due to route reconstruction. In this work, we study both the availability and the duration probability of a routing path that is subject to link failures caused by node mobility. In particular, we focus on the case where the network nodes move according to the Random Direction model, and we derive both exact and approximate (but simple) expressions of these probabilities. Through our results, we study the problem of selecting an optimal route in terms of path availability. Finally, we propose an approach to improve the efficiency of reactive routing protocols.

[1] R. Dube, C.D. Rais, K.-Y. Wang, and S.K. Tripathi, “Signal Stability Based Adaptive Routing (SSA) for Ad-Hoc Mobile Networks,” IEEE Personal Comm., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 36-45, Feb. 1997.
[2] S. Agarwal, A. Ahuja, J.P. Singh, and R. Shorey, “Route-Lifetime Assessment Based Routing (RABR) Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '00), pp. 1697-1701, June 2000.
[3] W. Su, S.-J. Lee, and M. Gerla, “Mobility Prediction and Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Int'l J. Network Management, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 3-30, Jan./Feb. 2001.
[4] C. Bettstetter, G. Resta, and P. Santi, “The Node Distribution of the Random Waypoint Mobility Model for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 257-269, July-Sept. 2003.
[5] T. Camp, J. Boleng, and V. Davies, “A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research,” Wireless Comm. & Mobile Computing (WCMC '02), special issue on mobile ad hoc networking: research, trends, and applications, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 483-502, 2002.
[6] P. Nain, D. Towsley, B. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Properties of Random Direction Model,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2005.
[7] E.M. Royer, P.M. Melliar, and L.E. Moser-Smith, “An Analysis of the Optimum Node Density for Ad hoc Mobile Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '01), June 2001.
[8] V. Rodoplu and T.H. Meng, “Minimum Energy Mobile Wireless Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1333-1344, Aug. 1999.
[9] C.E. Jones, K.M. Sivalingam, P. Agrawal, and J.C. Chen, “A Survey of Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless Networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 343-358, July 2001.
[10] G. Zussman and A. Segall, “Energy Efficient Routing in Ad Hoc Disaster Recovery Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2003.
[11] D.S.J. De Couto, D. Aguayo, J. Bicket, and R. Morris, “A High-Throughput Path Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless Routing,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, Sept. 2003.
[12] B. Awerbuch, D. Holmer, and H. Rubens, “The Medium Time Metric: High Throughput Route Selection in Multirate Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Mobile Networks and Applications, J. Special Issue on Internet Wireless Access: 802.11 and Beyond, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 253-266, Apr. 2006.
[13] D. Turgut, S.K. Das, and M. Chatterjee, “Longevity of Routes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC '01) Spring, pp. 2833-37, May 2001.
[14] I. Gruber and H. Li, “Link Expiration Times in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Workshop Wireless Local Networks, Proc. IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks (LCN '02), Nov. 2002.
[15] P. Samar and S.B. Wicker, “On the Behavior of Communication Links of a Node in a Multi-Hop Mobile Environment,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 145-156, May 2004.
[16] D. Yu, H. Li, and I. Gruber, “Path Availability in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Telecomm. (ICT '03), 2003.
[17] S. Cho and J.P. Hayes, “Impact of Mobility on Connection Stability in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC '05), pp. 1650-1656, Mar. 2005.
[18] A.B. McDonald and T. Znati, “A Mobility Based Framework for Adaptive Clustering in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks,” IEEE J.Selected Areas Comm., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1466-1487, Aug. 1999.
[19] Y.-C. Tseng, Y.-F. Li, and Y.-C. Chang, “On Route Lifetime in Multihop Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 366-376, Oct.-Dec. 2003.
[20] R. Groenevelt, E. Altman, and P. Nain, “Relaying in Mobile AdHoc Networks: The Brownian Motion Mobility Model,” J.Wireless Networks (WINET '06), vol. 12, pp. 561-571, May 2006.
[21] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C.S. Raghavendra, “Performance Analysis of Mobility-Assisted Routing,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp.49-60, May 2006.
[22] F. Bai, N. Sadagopan, B. Krishnamachari, and A. Helmy, “Modeling Path Duration Distributions in MANETs and Their Impact on Reactive Routing Protocols,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Comm., vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1357-1373, Sept. 2004.
[23] Y. Han, R.J. La, and A.M. Makowski, “Distribution of Path Durations in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks—Palm's Theorem at Work,” Proc. 16th ITC Specialist Seminar Performance Evaluation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, Aug./Sept. 2004.
[24] Y. Han, R.J. La, and H. Zhang, “Path Selection in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks and Distribution of Path Duration,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006.
[25] M. Garetto and E. Leonardi, “Analysis of Random Mobility Models with PDE's,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, May 2006.
[26] M. Garetto and E. Leonardi, “Analysis of Random Mobility Models with Partial Differential Equations,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1204-1217, Nov. 2007.
[27] S. Meyn and R. Tweedie, Markov Chains and Stochastic Stability. Springer-Verlag, 1994.
[28] L. Kleinrock, Queueing Systems, vol. 2. John Wiley, 1975.
[29] J. Mathews and R.L. Walker, Math. Methods of Physics, second ed., pp. 242-244, Addison-Wesley, 1970.
[30] C.-K. Toh, “Associativity-Based Routing for Ad-Hoc Mobile Networks,” Wireless Personal Comm. J., vol. 4, no. 2, pp.103-139, Mar. 1997.

Index Terms:
Mobile ad hoc networks, routing, modeling and analysis.
Citation:
Giovanna Carofiglio, Carla-Fabiana Chiasserini, Michele Garetto, Emilio Leonardi, "Route Stability in MANETs under the Random Direction Mobility Model," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1167-1179, Sept. 2009, doi:10.1109/TMC.2009.20
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.