This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Dynamic versus Static Traffic Policing: A New Approach for Videoconference Traffic over Wireless Cellular Networks
September 2009 (vol. 8 no. 9)
pp. 1153-1166
Polychronis Koutsakis, Technical University of Crete, Chania
The subject of traffic policing for computer communication networks has been studied extensively in the literature. However, the constant development of new multimedia applications which are “greedy” in terms of bandwidth and Quality of Service requirements calls for new approaches to the traffic policing problem. In this work, we introduce a new video model for single H.263 videoconference sources and we use it in order to propose a new traffic policing approach for wireless videoconference traffic. We study well-known traffic policing mechanisms which still present interesting, unsolved problems when servicing video traffic and propose, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time in the relevant literature that the token generator is based on a traffic model and not on a fixed rate. The proposed approach shows significant improvement in the results obtained by all the traffic policing mechanisms, and hence, shows that dynamic traffic policing can provide much higher efficiency than the widely used static approach.

[1] F.H.P. Fitzek and M. Reisslein, “MPEG-4 and H.263 Video Traces for Network Performance Evaluation,” IEEE Network, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 40-54, Nov./Dec. 2001.
[2] J.-Y. Le Boudec, “Some Properties of Variable Length Packet Shapers,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 329-337, June 2002.
[3] V. Raghunathan, S. Ganeriwal, M. Srivastava, and C. Schurgers, “Energy Efficient Wireless Packet Scheduling and Queuing,” ACM Trans. Embedded Computer Systems, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 3-23, 2004.
[4] G. Procissi, A. Garg, M. Gerla, and M.Y. Sanadidi, “Token Bucket Characterization of Long-Range Dependent Traffic,” Computer Comm., vol. 25, nos. 11/12, pp. 1009-1017, 2002.
[5] M. Fiddler and V. Sander, “A Parameter Based Admission Control for Differentiated Services Networks,” Computer Networks, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 463-479, 2004.
[6] E. McKenzie, “Autoregressive Moving-Average Processes with Negative-Binomial and Geometric Marginal Distribution,” Advances in Applied Probability, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 679-705, 1986.
[7] J. Sairamesh and N. Shroff, “Limitations and Pitfalls of Leaky Bucket—A Study with Video Traffic,” Proc. Third IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Comm. Networks (ICCCN '94), pp. 93-98, 1994.
[8] N.L.S. Fonseca, G.S. Mayor, and C.A.V. Neto, “On the Equivalent Bandwidth of Self-Similar Sources,” ACM Trans. Modeling and Computer Simulation, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 104-124, 2000.
[9] S. Chatziperis, P. Koutsakis, and M. Paterakis, “A New Call Admission Control Mechanism for Multimedia Traffic over Next Generation Wireless Cellular Networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 95-112, Jan. 2008.
[10] T. Ors and S.P.W. Jones, “Performance Optimizations of ATM Input Control Using an Adaptive Leaky-Bucket Mechanism,” Proc. Third IFIP Workshop Performance Modeling Evaluations ATM Networks, 1995.
[11] ITU-T Recommendation, H.263, version 3, 1996.
[12] G. Sisodia, M. Hedley, S. De, and L. Guan, “Source Model for VBR Coded Video Traffic in ATM Networks,” Proc. 23rd IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks (LCN '98), pp. 200-207, 1998.
[13] E.W. Knightly, “Enforceable Quality of Service Guarantees for Bursty Traffic Streams,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 635-642, 1998.
[14] E.P. Rathgeb, “Modeling and Performance Comparison of Policing Mechanisms for ATM Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 325-334, Apr. 1991.
[15] S.X. Ng, J.Y. Chung, P. Cherriman, and L. Hanzo, “Burst-by-Burst Adaptive Decision Feedback Equalized TCM, TTCM and BICM for H.263-Assisted Wireless Video Telephony,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 363-374, Mar. 2006.
[16] P.-Y. Kong, K.-C. Chua, and B. Bensau, “A Novel Scheduling Scheme to Share Dropping Ratio while Guaranteeing a Delay Bound in a MultiCode-CDMA Network,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 994-1006, Dec. 2003.
[17] C.V.N. Albuquerque, M. Faerman, and O.C.M.B. Duarte, “Implementations of Traffic Control Mechanisms for High Speed Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Telecomm. Symp., pp. 177-182, 1998.
[18] G.J. Sullivan, P. Topiwala, and A. Luthra, “The H.264/AVC Advanced Video Coding Standard: Overview and Introduction to the Fidelity Range Extensions,” Proc. SPIE Conf. Applications Digital Image Processing XXVII, Special Session Advances New Emerging Standard:H.264/AVC, Aug. 2004.
[19] A.R. Reibman and A.W. Berger, “Traffic Descriptors for VBR Video Teleconferencing over ATM Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 329-339, June 1995.
[20] D.P. Heyman, A. Tabatabai, and T.V. Lakshman, “Statistical Analysis and Simulation Study of Video Teleconference Traffic in ATM Networks,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 49-59, Mar. 1992.
[21] D.P. Heyman, T.V. Lakshman, A. Tabatabai, and H. Heeke, “Modeling Teleconference Traffic from VBR Video Coders,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '94), pp. 1744-1748, 1994.
[22] S.M. Cherry, “Fiber to the Home,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 42-43, Jan. 2004.
[23] A.M. Law and W.D. Kelton, Simulation Modeling & Analysis, second ed. McGraw Hill Inc., 1991.
[24] R. Guerin, “Quality-of-Service in IP Networks,” Tutorial, Proc. Sixth IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symp. (RTAS '00), 2000.
[25] N. Alborz, M. Keyvani, M. Nikolic, and L. Trajkovic, “Simulation of Packet Data Networks Using OPNET,” http://www.ensc.sfu. ca/~ljilja/cnl/presentations/ milan/opnetwork2ktsld013.htm, 2009.
[26] reference.html , 2009.
[27] D.A. Dyson and Z.J. Haas, “A Dynamic Packet Reservation Multiple Access Scheme for Wireless ATM,” Mobile Networks and Applications J., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 87-99, 1999.
[28] M. Vuskovic, “Investigating Leaky Bucket Policing Mechanisms in ATM Networks,” draft2.htm, 2009.
[29] C.Y. Hsu, A. Ortega, and M. Khansari, “Rate Control for Robust Video Transmission Over Burst-Error Wireless Channels,” IEEE J.Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 756-773, May 1999.
[30] N.M. Mitrou, G.L. Lyberopoulos, and A.D. Panagopoulou, “Voice and Data Integration in the Air-Interface of a Microcellular Mobile Communication System,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1-13, Feb. 1993.
[31] L. Yan-Ling, W. Peng, and W. Wei-Ling, “A Steady Source Model for VBR Video Conferences,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Information Technology: Computers Comm. (ITCC '03), pp. 268-273, 2003.
[32] P. Koutsakis, “A New Model for Multiplexed VBR H.263 Videoconference Traffic,” Proc. 49th IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf. (GLOBECOM '06), 2006.
[33] O. Lazaro, D. Girma, and J. Dunlop, “H.263 Video Traffic Modeling for Low Bit Rate Wireless Communications,” Proc. IEEE Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Comm. (PIMRC '04), vol. 3, pp.2124-2128, 2004.
[34] D.P. Heyman, “The GBAR Source Model for VBR Video-Conferences,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 5, no. 4, pp.554-560, Aug. 1997.
[35] M. Krunz and S.K. Tripathi, “On the Characterization of VBR MPEG Streams,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, vol. 25, June 1997.
[36] U.K. Sarkar, S. Ramakrishnan, and D. Sarkar, “Modeling Full-Length Video Using Markov-Modulated Gamma-Based Framework,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 638-649, Aug. 2003.
[37] O. Rose, “Statistical Properties of MPEG Video Traffic and Their Impact on Traffic Modeling in ATM Systems,” Proc. 20th IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks (LCN '95), pp. 397-406, 1995.
[38] D.M. Lucantoni, M.F. Neuts, and A.R. Reibman, “Methods for Performance Evaluation of VBR Video Traffic Models,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 176-180, Apr. 1994.
[39] H.S. Chin, J.W. Goodge, R. Griffiths, and D.J. Parish, “Statistics of Video Signals for Viewphone-Type Pictures,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 826-832, June 1989.
[40] E.A. Viruete Navaro, J. Ruiz Mas, J. Fernandez Navajas, and C. Pena Alcega, “Performance of a 3G-Based Mobile Telemedicine System,” Proc. IEEE Consumer Comm. Networking Conf. (CCNC '06), vol. 2, pp. 1023-1027, 2006.
[41] S. Xu and Z. Huang, “A Gamma Autoregressive Video Model on ATM Networks,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems Video Technology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 138-142, Apr. 1998.
[42] J.R. Gallego, A. Hernandez-Solana, M. Canales, J. Lafuente, A. Valdovinos, and J. Fernandez-Navajas, “Performance Analysis of Multiplexed Medical Data Transmission for Mobile Emergency Care Over the UMTS Channel,” IEEE Trans. Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 13-22, Mar. 2005.
[43] G.R. Ash, Traffic Engineering and QoS Optimization of Integrated Voice & Data Networks, first ed. Morgan Kaufmann, 2006.
[44] Q. Zhang, W. Zu, and Y.-Q. Zhang, “Channel-Adaptive Resource Allocation for Scalable Video Transmission Over 3G Wireless Network,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1049-1063, Aug. 2004.
[45] M. Etoh and T. Yoshimura, “Advances in Wireless Video Delivery,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 111-122, Jan. 2005.
[46] S. Garawi, R.S.H. Istepanian, and M.A. Abu-Rgheff, “3G Wireless Communications for Mobile Robotic Tele-Ultrasonography Systems,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 91-96, Apr. 2006.
[47] A. Lazaris and P. Koutsakis, “Modeling Video Traffic from Multiplexed H.264 Videoconference Streams,” Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf. (GLOBECOM '08), 2008.

Index Terms:
Traffic policing, token bucket, traffic modeling, wireless videoconference, H.263 video encoding.
Polychronis Koutsakis, "Dynamic versus Static Traffic Policing: A New Approach for Videoconference Traffic over Wireless Cellular Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1153-1166, Sept. 2009, doi:10.1109/TMC.2009.18
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.