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Issue No.08 - August (2009 vol.8)
pp: 1132-1147
Thrasyvoulos Spyropoulos , ETH Zurich, Zurich
Katia Obraczka , University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz
ABSTRACT
Communication networks are traditionally assumed to be connected. However, emerging wireless applications such as vehicular networks, pocket-switched networks, etc., coupled with volatile links, node mobility, and power outages, will require the network to operate despite frequent disconnections. To this end, opportunistic routing techniques have been proposed, where a node may store-and-carry a message for some time, until a new forwarding opportunity arises. Although a number of such algorithms exist, most focus on relatively homogeneous settings of nodes. However, in many envisioned applications, participating nodes might include handhelds, vehicles, sensors, etc. These various "classes” have diverse characteristics and mobility patterns, and will contribute quite differently to the routing process. In this paper, we address the problem of routing in intermittently connected wireless networks comprising multiple classes of nodes. We show that proposed solutions, which perform well in homogeneous scenarios, are not as competent in this setting. To this end, we propose a class of routing schemes that can identify the nodes of "highest utility” for routing, improving the delay and delivery ratio by four to five times. Additionally, we propose an analytical framework based on fluid models that can be used to analyze the performance of various opportunistic routing strategies, in heterogeneous settings.
INDEX TERMS
Delay-tolerant network, intermittent connectivity, routing, utility, replication, fluid model.
CITATION
Thrasyvoulos Spyropoulos, Katia Obraczka, "Routing in Delay-Tolerant Networks Comprising Heterogeneous Node Populations", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.8, no. 8, pp. 1132-1147, August 2009, doi:10.1109/TMC.2008.172
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