The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.08 - August (2009 vol.8)
pp: 1023-1038
Min Shao , Microsoft Corp., Redmond
Sencun Zhu , Pennsylvania State University, University Park
Wensheng Zhang , Iowa State University, Ames
Guohong Cao , Pennsylvania State University, University Park
Yi Yang , Pennsylvania State University, University Park
ABSTRACT
The demand for efficient data dissemination/access techniques to find relevant data from within a sensor network has led to the development of Data-Centric Sensor (DCS) networks, where the sensor data instead of sensor nodes are named based on attributes such as event type or geographic location. However, saving data inside a network also creates security problems due to the lack of tamper resistance of the sensor nodes and the unattended nature of the sensor network. For example, an attacker may simply locate and compromise the node storing the event of his interest. To address these security problems, we present pDCS, a privacy-enhanced DCS network which offers different levels of data privacy based on different cryptographic keys. pDCS also includes an efficient key management scheme to facilitate the management of multiple types of keys used in the system. In addition, we propose several query optimization techniques based on euclidean Steiner Tree and keyed Bloom Filter (KBF) to minimize the query overhead while preserving query privacy. Finally, detailed analysis and simulations show that the KBF scheme can significantly reduce the message overhead with the same level of query delay and maintain a very high level of query privacy.
INDEX TERMS
Security, privacy, data centric, keyed Bloom Filter, wireless sensor networks.
CITATION
Min Shao, Sencun Zhu, Wensheng Zhang, Guohong Cao, Yi Yang, "pDCS: Security and Privacy Support for Data-Centric Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.8, no. 8, pp. 1023-1038, August 2009, doi:10.1109/TMC.2008.168
REFERENCES
[1] I. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey,” Computer Networks, vol. 38, no. 4, Mar. 2002.
[2] S. Ratnasamy, B. Karp, L. Yin, F. Yu, D. Estrin, R. Govindan, and S. Shenker, “GHT: A Geographic Hash Table for Data-Centric Storage,” Proc. First ACM Workshop Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA '02), Sept. 2002.
[3] A. Ghose, J. Grobklags, and J. Chuang, “Resilient Data-Centric Storage in Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Mobile Data Management (MDM '03), pp. 45-62, 2003.
[4] W. Zhang, G. Cao, and T. La Porta, “Data Dissemination with Ring-Based Index for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. 11th IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP '03), pp. 305-314, Nov. 2003.
[5] B. Karp and H. Kung, “GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2000.
[6] F. Ye, H. Luo, J. Cheng, S. Lu, and L. Zhang, “A Two-Tier Data Dissemination Model for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 148-159, Sept. 2002.
[7] S. Ratnasamy, D. Estrin, R. Govindan, B. Karp, L. Yin, S. Shenker, and F. Yu, “Data-Centric Storage in Sensornets,” Proc. ACM First Workshop Hot Topics in Networks, 2001.
[8] The Smartdust Project, http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/pister SmartDust/, 2008.
[9] P. Winter and M. Zachariasen, “Euclidean Steiner Minimum Trees: An Improved Exact Algorithm,” Networks, vol. 30, no. 3, pp.149-166, 1997.
[10] G. Myles, A. Friday, and N. Davies, “Preserving Privacy in Environments with Location-Based Applications,” IEEE Pervasive Computing, 2003.
[11] U. Hengartner and P. Steenkiste, “Protecting Access to People Location Information,” Proc. First Int'l Conf. Security in Pervasive Computing (SPC '03), 2003.
[12] E. Snekkenes, “Concepts for Personal Location Privacy Policies,” Proc. Third ACM Conf. Electronic Commerce (EC '01), 2001.
[13] M. Gruteser, G. Schelle, A. Jain, R. Han, and D. Grunwald, “Privacy-Aware Location Sensor Networks,” Proc. Ninth USENIX Workshop Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HotOS '03), 2003.
[14] J. Deng, R. Han, and S. Mishra, “Intrusion Tolerance and Anti-Traffic Analysis Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN '04), June 2004.
[15] D. Chaum, “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Address, and Digital Pseudonyms,” Comm. ACM, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 84-88, 1981.
[16] C. Ozturk, Y. Zhang, and W. Trappe, “Source-Location Privacy in Energy-Constrained Sensor Networks Routing,” Proc. ACM Workshop Security of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (SASN '04), Oct. 2004.
[17] M. Shao, S. Zhu, W. Zhang, and G. Cao, “pDCS: Security and Privacy Support for Data-Centric Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007.
[18] A. Perrig, R. Szewczyk, V. Wen, D. Culler, and J. Tygar, “Spins: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2001.
[19] S. Zhu, S. Setia, and S. Jajodia, “Leap: Efficient Security Mechanisms for Large-Scale Distributed Sensor Networks,” Proc. 10th ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS '03), 2003.
[20] H. Chan, A. Perrig, and D. Song, “Random Key Predistribution Schemes for Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Security and Privacy Symp., 2003.
[21] W. Du, J. Deng, Y. Han, and P. Varshney, “A Pairwise Key Pre-Distribution Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. 10th ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS '03), pp. 42-51, 2003.
[22] L. Eschenauer and V. Gligor, “A Key-Management Scheme for Distributed Sensor Networks,” Proc. Ninth ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS '02), 2002.
[23] D. Liu and P. Ning, “Establishing Pairwise Keys in Distributed Sensor Networks,” Proc. 10th ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS '03), 2003.
[24] S. Zhu, S. Xu, S. Setia, and S. Jajodia, “Establishing Pair-Wise Keys for Secure Communication in Ad Hoc Networks: A Probabilistic Approach,” Proc. 11th IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP '03), 2003.
[25] Y. Zhang, W. Liu, W. Lou, and Y. Fang, “Location-Based Compromise-Tolerant Security Mechanisms for Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., Feb. 2006.
[26] W. Zhang and G. Cao, “Group Rekeying for Filtering False Data in Sensor Networks: A Predistribution and Local Collaboration-Based Approach,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2005.
[27] W. Zhang, M. Tran, S. Zhu, and G. Cao, “A Random Perturbation-Based Scheme for Pairwise Key Establishment in Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2007.
[28] C.K. Wong, M. Gouda, and S. Lam, “Secure Group Communication Using Key Graphs,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 1998.
[29] A. Perrig, D. Song, and D. Tygar, “Elk, a New Protocol for Efficient Large-Group Key Distribution,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Security and Privacy, 2001.
[30] D. Naor, M. Naor, and J. Lotspiech, “Revocation and Tracing Schemes for Stateless Receivers,” Proc. Advances in Cryptology (CRYPTO '01), pp. 41-62, 2001.
[31] L. Lazos and R. Poovendran, “Energy-Aware Secure Multicast Communication in Ad-Hoc Networks Using Geographic Location Information,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '03), 2003.
[32] Y. Ko and N. Vaidya, “Location-Aided Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 66-75, 1998.
[33] D. Niculescu and B. Nath, “Trajectory Based Forwarding and Its Applications,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2003.
[34] S. Capkun and J. Hubaux, “Secure Positioning of Wireless Devices with Application to Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2005.
[35] H. Akcan, V. Kriakov, H. Bronnimann, and A. Delis, “GPS-Free Node Localization in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Fifth Int'l ACM Workshop Data Eng. for Wireless and Mobile Access (MobiDE '06), June 2006.
[36] R. Iyengar and B. Sikdar, “Scalable and Distributed GPS Free Positioning for Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '03), 2003.
[37] N. Bulusu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “GPS-Less Low Cost Outdoor Localization for Very Small Devices,” IEEE Personal Comm., 2000.
[38] K. Sun, P. Ning, and C. Wang, “Secure and Resilient Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 395-408, 2006.
[39] H. Song, S. Zhu, and G. Cao, “Attack-Resilient Time Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 112-125, Jan. 2007.
[40] C. Karlof and D. Wagner, “Secure Routing in Sensor Networks: Attacks and Countermeasures,” Proc. First IEEE Workshop Sensor Network Protocols and Applications (SNPA '03), 2003.
[41] A. Cardenas, S. Radosavac, and J. Baras, “Detection and Prevention of MAC Layer Misbehavior for Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM Workshop Security of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (SASN'04), 2004.
[42] W. Xu, T. Wood, W. Trappe, and Y. Zhang, “Channel Surfing and Spatial Retreats: Defenses against Wireless Denial of Service,” Proc. ACM Workshop Wireless Security (WiSe '04), 2004.
[43] Crossbow Technology Inc., http:/www.xbow.com, 2004.
[44] M. Shao, Y. Yang, S. Zhu, and G. Cao, “Towards Statistically Strong Source Anonymity for Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2008.
[45] Y. Yang, M. Shao, S. Zhu, B. Urgaonkar, and G. Cao, “Towards Event Source Unobservability with Minimum Network Traffic in Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM Conf. Wireless Network Security (WiSec '08), 2008.
[46] W.-T. Chen, H.-L. Hsu, and J.-L. Chiang, “Logical Key Tree Based Secure Multicast Protocol with Copyright Protection,” Proc. 19th IEEE Int'l Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA '05), 2005.
[47] G. Hao, N.V. Vinodchandran, and B. Ramamruthy, “A Balanced Key Tree Approach for Dynamic Secure Group Communication,” Proc. IEEE 14th Int'l Conf. Computer Comm. and Networks (ICCCN'05), 2005.
[48] J. Deng, R. Han, and S. Mishra, “A Practical Study of Transitory Master Key Establishment for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. First IEEE/CreateNet Conf. Security and Privacy in Comm. Networks (SecureComm '05), pp. 289-299, Sept. 2005.
[49] S. Zhu, S. Setia, and S. Jajodia, “Leap+: Efficient Security Mechanisms for Large-Scale Distributed Sensor Networks,” ACM Trans. Sensor Networks, vol. 2, 2007.
[50] F. Ye, H. Luo, S. Lu, and L. Zhang, “Statistical En-Route Detection and Filtering of Injected False Data in Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004.
[51] T. Park and K. Shin, “Soft Tamper-Proofing via Program Integrity Verification in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 4, no. 3, 2005.
[52] A. Seshadri, A. Perrig, L. Doorn, and P. Khosla, “Swatt: Software-Based Attestation for Embedded Devices,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Security and Privacy, May 2004.
[53] Y. Yang, X. Wang, S. Zhu, and G. Cao, “Distributed Software-Based Attestation for Node Compromise Detection in Sensor Networks,” Proc. 26th IEEE Int'l Symp. Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS '07), 2007.
[54] M. Cagalj, J. Hubaux, and C. Enz, “Minimum-Energy Broadcast in All Wireless Networks: NP-Completeness and Distribution,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2002.
[55] B. Bloom, “Space/Time Trade-Offs in Hash Coding with Allowable Errors,” Comm. ACM, 1970.
[56] The Tinydb Project, http://telegraph.cs.berkeley.edutinydb/, 2008.
[57] R. Cordone and F. Maffioli, “On the Complexity of Graph Tree Partition Problems,” Discrete Applied Math., vol. 134, nos. 1-3, pp.51-65, 2004.
[58] Weidai's Crypto++, http://www.eskimo.com/weidaibenchmarks. html , July 2005.
73 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool