The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - April (2009 vol.8)
pp: 500-513
Roberto Beraldi , University of Rome, Rome
A recurrent problem when designing distributed applications is to search for a node with known property. File searching in peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, resource discovery in service-oriented architectures (SOAs), and path discovery in routing can all be cast as a search problem. Random walk-based search algorithms are often suggested for tackling the search problem, especially in very dynamic systems-like mobile wireless networks. The cost and the effectiveness of a random walk-based search algorithm are measured by the excepted number of transmissions required before hitting the target. Hence, to have a low hitting time is a critical goal. This paper studies the effect of biasing random walk toward the target on the hitting time. For a walk running over a network with uniform node distribution, a simple upper bound that connects the hitting time to the bias level is obtained. The key result is that even a modest bias level is able to reduce the hitting time significantly. This paper also proposes a search protocol for mobile wireless networks, whose results are interpreted in the light of the theoretical study. The proposed solution is for unstructured wireless mobile networks.
Algorithm/protocol design and analysis, random walks, mobile ad hoc networks, search algorithms.
Roberto Beraldi, "Biased Random Walks in Uniform Wireless Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.8, no. 4, pp. 500-513, April 2009, doi:10.1109/TMC.2008.151
[1] A. Avin and B. Krishnamachari, “The Power of Choice in Random Walks: An Empirical Study,” Proc. Ninth ACM/IEEE Int'l Symp. Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM '06), 2006.
[2] C. Avin and G. Ercal, “On the Cover Time of Random Geometric Graphs,” Proc. 32nd Int'l Colloquium Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP '05), 2005.
[3] C. Avin and C. Brito, “Efficient and Robust Query Processing in Dynamic Environment Using Random Walk Techniques,” Proc. Third Int'l Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN'04), 2004.
[4] Z. Bar-Yossef, R. Friedman, and G. Kliot, “RaWMS—Random Walk Based Lightweight Membership Service for Wireless AdHoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2006.
[5] S. Boyd, A. Ghosh, B. Prabhakar, and D. Shah, “Gossip and Mixing Times of Random Walks on Random Graphs,” Proc. SIAM Second Workshop Analytic Algorithmics and Combinatorics (ANALCO '05), 2005.
[6] R. Beraldi, L. Querzoni, and R. Baldoni, “A Hint-Based Probabilistic Protocol for Unicast Communications in MANETs,” Elsevier J.Ad Hoc Networks, 2006.
[7] N. Chang and M. Liu, “Optimal Controlled Flooding Search in Large Wireless Networks,” Proc. Third Int'l Symp. Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WIOPT '05), 2005.
[8] S. Dolev, E. Schiller, and J. Welch, “Random Walk for Self-Stabilizing Group Communication in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. 21st ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC '02), 2002.
[9] H. Dubois-Ferriere, M. Grossglauser, and M. Vetterli, “Age Matters: Efficient Route Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Encounter Ages,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2004.
[10] C. Gkantsidis, M. Mihail, and A. Saberi, “Random Walks in Peer-to-Peer Networks: Algorithms and Evaluation,” Elsevier Performance Evaluation J., vol. 63, no. 3, Mar. 2006.
[11] S. Ni, Y. Tseng, Y. Chen, and J. Sheu, “The Broadcast Storm Problem in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, Aug. 1999.
[12] D.B. Johnson and D.A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networking,” Mobile Computing, T. Iemielinski and H. Korth, eds., chapter 5, Kluwer Academic, 1996.
[13] J. Kopena et al., “Service-Based Computing on Manets: Enabling Dynamic Interoperability of First Responders,” IEEE Intelligent Systems, Sept./Oct. 2005.
[14] G. Lau, M. Jaseemuddin, and G.M. Ravindran, “RAON: A P2P Network for MANET,” Proc. Second IFIP Int'l Conf. Wireless and Optical Comm. Networks (WOCN '05), 2005.
[15] http://lrcwww.epfl.chRandomTrip/, 2008.
[16] X. Li and J. Wu, “Searching Techniques in Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Handbook of Theoretical and Algorithmic Aspects of Sensor, Auerbach Publications, 2006.
[17] L. Lovazs, “Random Walks on Graphs: A Survey,” Combinatorics, Paul Erdos in Eighty, vol. 2, János Bolyai Math. Soc. Budapest, 1993.
[18] J. Luo and J.-P. Hubaux, “NASCENT: Network Layer Service for Vicinity Ad-Hoc Groups,” Proc. First IEEE Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON '04), 2004.
[19] Q. Lv, P. Cao, E. Cohen, K. Li, and S. Shenker, “Search and Replication in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 16th Int'l Conf. Supercomputing (ICS '02), 2002.
[20] M. Gerla, C. Lindemann, and A. Rowstron, “Perspectives Workshop: Peer-to-Peer Mobile Ad Hoc Networks—New Research Issues,” Proc. Dagstuhl Seminar, 2005.
[21] I. Goldhirsch and Y. Gefen, “Biased Random Walk on Networks,” Physical Rev. A, vol. 35, no. 3, Feb. 1987.
[22] C. Gkantisidis, M. Michail, and A. Saberi, “Random Walks in Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004.
[23] M. Günes and O. Spaniol, “Ant-Routing-Algorithm for Mobile Multi-Hop Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Ad Hoc Networking (IWAHN '02), 2002.
[24] C.E. Perkins, E.M. Royer, and S.R. Das, Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing, IETF Internet draft, work in progress, July 2008.
[25] N. Sarafijanovic-Djukic and M. Grossglauser, “Last Encounter Routing under Random Waypoint Mobility,” Proc. Third Int'l IFIP-TC6 Networking Conf. (NETWORKING '04), May 2004.
[26] S. Vempala, Geometric Random Walks: A Survey, http://www-math. survey.pdf, 2008.
23 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool