The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.03 - March (2009 vol.8)
pp: 304-321
Yan Sun , Pennsylvania State University, University Park
Thomas F. La Porta , Pennsylvania State University, University Park
Parviz Kermani , IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Hawthorne
ABSTRACT
Location based services(LBS) are becoming increasingly important to the success and attractiveness of next generation wireless systems. However, a natural tension arises between the need for user privacy and the flexible use of location information. In this paper we present a framework to support privacy enhanced location based services. We classify the services according to several basic criteria and we propose a hierarchical key distribution method to support these services. The key idea behind the system is to hierarchically encrypt location information under different keys, and distribute the appropriate keys only to group members with the necessary permission. Four methods are proposed to deliver hierarchical location information while maintaining privacy. We propose a key tree rebalancing algorithm to maintain the re-keying performance of the group key management. Furthermore, we present a practical LBS system implementation. Hierarchical location information coding offers flexible location information access which enables a rich set of location based services. Our load tests show such a system is highly practical with good efficiency and scalability.
INDEX TERMS
Architectures, Support services, Algorithm/protocol design and analysis
CITATION
Yan Sun, Thomas F. La Porta, Parviz Kermani, "A Flexible Privacy-Enhanced Location-Based Services System Framework and Practice", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.8, no. 3, pp. 304-321, March 2009, doi:10.1109/TMC.2008.112
REFERENCES
[1] J. Arkko and E. Carrara, MIKEY: Multimedia Internet Keying, IETF RFC 3830, 2004.
[2] S. Rafaeli and D. Hutchison, “A Survey of Key Management for Secure Group Communication,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 309-329, 2003.
[3] D. Wallner, E. Harder, and R. Agee, Key Management for Multicast: Issues and Architecture, Internet Draft, IETF, 1998.
[4] Pols: Privacy Observant Location System, http:/pols.sourceforge. net/, 2008.
[5] Functional Stage 2 Description of Location Services (LCS), 3GPP, TS 23.271 Version 6.8.0 (2006-06), 2006.
[6] IETF, Geopriv Working Group, http://www.ietf.org/html. chartersgeopriv-charter.html , 2008.
[7] U. Hengartner and P. Steenkiste, “Exploiting Information Relationships for Access Control,” Proc. Third IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm., pp. 269-278, Mar. 2005.
[8] M. Haque and S.I. Ahamed, “An Omnipresent Formal Trust Model (FTM) for Pervasive Computing Environment,” Proc. 31st Ann. Int'l Computer Software and Applications Conf., pp. 49-56, 2007.
[9] D. Quercia, S. Hailes, and L. Capra, “B-Trust: Bayesian Trust Framework for Pervasive Computing,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Trust Management, pp. 269-278, May 2006.
[10] M. Langheinrich, “A Privacy Awareness System for Ubiquitous Computing Environments,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Ubiquitous Computing, pp. 237-245, 2002.
[11] G. Myles, A. Friday, and N. Davies, “Preserving Privacy in Environments with Location-Based Applications,” IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 56-64, 2003.
[12] M. Gruteser and X. Liu, “Protecting Privacy in Continuous Location-Tracking Applications,” IEEE Security and Privacy, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 28-34, Mar. 2004.
[13] M. Gruteser and D. Grunwald, “Anonymous Usage of Location-Based Services through Spatial and Temporal Cloaking,” Proc.First Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys'03), pp. 31-42, May 2003.
[14] A.R. Beresford and F. Stajano, “Location Privacy in Pervasive Computing,” IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 46-55, 2003.
[15] Q. He, D. Wu, and P. Khosla, “Quest for Personal Control over Mobile Location Privacy,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 42, no. 5, pp.130-136, 2004.
[16] B. Schilit, J. Hong, and M. Gruteser, “Wireless Location Privacy Protection,” Computer, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 135-137, 2003.
[17] M. Prabaker, J. Rao, I. Fette, P. Kelley, L. Cranor, J. Hong, and N. Sadeh, “Understanding and Capturing Peoples Privacy Policies in a People Finder Application,” Proc. UbiComp Workshop Privacy, 2007.
[18] L.P. Cox, A. Dalton, and V. Marupadi, “Smokescreen: Flexible Privacy Controls for Presence-Sharing,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys), 2007.
[19] D. Balenson, D. McGrew, and A. Sherman, Key Management for Large Dynamic Groups: One-Way Function Trees and Amortized Initialization, Internet Draft, IETF, 2000.
[20] A. Perrig, D. Song, and J.D. Tygar, “ELK, A New Protocol for Efficient Large-Group Key Distribution,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Security and Privacy, pp. 247-262, May 2001.
[21] O. Rodeh, K. Birman, and D. Dolev, “Using AVL Trees for Fault Tolerant Group Key Management,” Technical Report 2000-1823, Cornell Univ., 2000.
[22] M. Moyer, J. Rao, and P. Rohatgi, Maintaining Balanced Key Trees for Secure Multicast, Internet Draft, IETF, 1999.
[23] G. Hao, N.V. Vinodchandran, and B. Ramamurthy, “A Balanced Key Tree Approach for Dynamic Secure Group Communication,” Proc. 14th Int'l Conf. Computer Comm. and Networks, pp. 345-350, 2005.
[24] S. Zhu, S. Setia, and S. Jajodia, “Performance Optimizations for Group Key Management Schemes,” Proc. 23rd Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 345-350, May 2003.
[25] MySpace, http://en.wikipedia.org/wikiMyspace, 2008.
[26] Friendster, http://en.wikipedia.org/wikiFriendster, 2008.
[27] Facebook.statictics.retrieved on 2007-12-20, http://www.facebook. com/pressinfo.php?statistics , 2008.
[28] R. Gross and A. Acquisti, “Information Revelation and Privacy in Online Social Network (The Facebook Case),” Proc. ACM Workshop Privacy in the Electronic Soc., pp. 71-80, 2005.
[29] MMORPG, http://en.wikipedia.org/wikiMMORPG, 2008.
[30] Botfighters2, http:/www.Botfighters2.com, 2008.
[31] CitiTag, http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projectscititag/, 2008.
[32] World of Warcraft Surpasses 9 Million Subscribers Worldwide, press release, Blizzard Entertainment, July 2007.
[33] N. Ducheneaut1, N. Yee, E. Nickell, and R.J. Moore, “Alone Together? Exploring the Social Dynamics of Massively Multiplayer Online Games,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 407-416, 2006.
[34] M. Baugher et al., The Group Domain of Interpretation, IETF RFC 3547, 2003.
[35] H. Harney et al., Gsakmp: Group Secure Association Key Management Protocol, IETF RFC 4535, 2006.
[36] T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, and R.L. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms. MIT Press, 2001.
[37] A. Andersson, “General Balanced Trees,” J. Algorithms, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1-28, 1999.
[38] Y. Vogiazou and B. Raijmakers, “Urban Space as a Large-Scale Group Playground,” Proc. UbiComp Workshop UbiComp in the Urban Frontier, pp. 45-58, 2006.
[39] Jive Software: Wildfire Instant Message Server, v3.1.1, http://www.jivesoftware.orgwildfire/, 2008.
[40] Jive Software: Spark Instant Message Client, v2.0.0.2, http://www.jivesoftware.orgspark/, 2008.
[41] K. Almeroth and M. Ammar, “Multicast Group Behavior in the Internet's Multicast Backbone (mbone),” IEEE Comm., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 124-129, 1997.
[42] S. Alouf, E. Altman, C. Barakat, and P. Nain, “Optimal Estimation of Multicast Membership,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 2165-2176, 2003.
[43] Open Service Access (OSA); Parlay X Web Services, 3GPP, TS 29.199 Version 7.0.0 (2006-06), 2006.
4 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool