This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Data Broadcast with Adaptive Network Coding in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
January 2009 (vol. 8 no. 1)
pp. 109-125
De-Nian Yang, National Taiwan University, Taipei
Ming-Syan Chen, National Taiwan University, Taipei
In this paper, we propose a new data broadcast mechanism with network coding in heterogeneous wireless networks. Our mechanism adaptively clusters the mobile hosts in fewer cells to minimize the bandwidth consumption. In addition, we adaptively code the data according to the data temporarily stored in each mobile host with a distributed manner. Our mechanism allows each delivered message to be coded from only a subset of data to further reduce the number of required messages. We formulate the cell selection and broadcast coding problem with integer programming and prove that the problem is NP-hard. We design a distributed algorithm based on Lagrangean relaxation. Our algorithm needs no server to record the location, queried, and stored information of receivers. Moreover, our algorithm is adaptive to the dynamic group membership, mobility, queried, and stored data of receivers.

[1] H. Hsieh and R. Sivakumar, “A Transport Layer Approach for Achieving Aggregate Bandwidths on Multi-Homed Mobile Hosts,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2002.
[2] H. Huang, J. Cai, A.J. Kassler, and C. Fu, “Load-Sharing in Wireless Multi-Homed Systems,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '05), vol. 5, pp. 16-20, 2005.
[3] 3GPP TS 23.234, 3GPP System to Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Interworking, 2008.
[4] Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA), http://www.umatechnology. orgindex.htm, 2008.
[5] S. Lee, C.-S. Hwang, and M. Kitsuregawa, “Using Predeclaration for Efficient Read-Only Transaction Processing in Wireless Data Broadcast,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 15, no. 6, pp.1579-1583, Nov./Dec. 2003.
[6] M.-S. Chen, K.-L. Wu, and P.S. Yu, “Optimizing Index Allocation for Sequential Data Broadcasting in Wireless Mobile Computing,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 161-173, Jan./Feb. 2003.
[7] N. Vlajic, C.D. Charalambous, and D. Makrakis, “Performance Aspects of Data Broadcast in Wireless Networks with User Retrials,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 620-633, Aug. 2004.
[8] J. Xu, X. Tang, and W.-C. Lee, “Time-Critical On-Demand Data Broadcast: Algorithms, Analysis, and Performance Evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3-14, Jan. 2006.
[9] Y. Yao, X. Tang, E.-P. Lim, and A. Sun, “An Energy-Efficient and Access Latency Optimized Indexing Scheme for Wireless Data Broadcast,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 18, no. 8, pp.1111-1124, Aug. 2006.
[10] R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y.R. Li, and W. Yeung, “Network Information Flow,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1204-1216, July 2000.
[11] R. Koetter and M. Médard, “An Algebraic Approach to NetworkCoding,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 782-795, Oct. 2003.
[12] S.-Y.R. Li, R.W. Yeung, and N. Cai, “Linear Network Coding,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 49, no. 2, pp.371-381, Feb. 2003.
[13] T. Ho, M. Médard, M. Effros, and D. Karger, “The Benefits of Coding over Routing in a Randomized Setting,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Theory, June/July 2003.
[14] S. Jaggi, P. Sanders, P.A. Chou, M. Effros, S. Egner, K. Jain, and L.M.G.M. Tolhuizen, “Polynomial Time Algorithms for Multicast Network Code Construction,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1973-1982, June 2005.
[15] C. Fragouli, J.-Y.L. Boudec, and J. Widmer, “Network Coding: An Instant Primer,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 63-68, Jan. 2006.
[16] Z. Li, B. Li, D. Jiang, and L. Lau, “On Achieving Optimal Throughput with Network Coding,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, vol. 3, pp. 2184-2194, 2005.
[17] D. Lun et al., “Achieving Minimum-Cost Multicast: A Decentralized Approach Based on Network Coding,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, vol. 3, pp. 1607-1617, 2005.
[18] Y. Zhu, B. Li, and J. Guo, “Multicast with Network Coding in Application-Layer Overlay Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 107-120, Jan. 2004.
[19] J. Zhao, F. Yang, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and F. Zhang, “LION: Layered Overlay Multicast with Network Coding,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1021-1032, Oct. 2006.
[20] C. Gkantsidis and P. Rodriguez, “Network Coding for Large Scale Content Distribution,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, vol. 4, pp. 2235-2245, 2005.
[21] M. Wang and B. Li, “Lava: A Reality Check of Network Coding in Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '07, pp.1082-1090, 2007.
[22] Y. Wu, P.A. Chou, and S.-Y. Kung, “Minimum-Energy Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Network Coding,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1906-1918, Nov. 2005.
[23] C. Fragouli, J. Widmer, and J.-Y.L. Boudec, “A Network Coding Approach to Energy Efficient Broadcasting: From Theory to Practice,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '06, pp. 1-11, 2006.
[24] Y. Wu, P.A. Chou, Q. Zhang, K. Jain, W. Zhu, and S.-Y. Kung, “Network Planning in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Cross-Layer Approach,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 136-150, Jan. 2005.
[25] P.A. Chou, Y. Wu, and K. Jain, “Practical Network Coding,” Proc. 51st Ann. Allerton Conf. Comm., Control, and Computing, Oct. 2003.
[26] C. Gkantsidis, J. Miller, and P. Rodriguez, “Comprehensive View of a Live Network Coding P2P System,” Proc. Sixth ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Measurement, pp. 177-188, 2006.
[27] D. Wang, Q. Zhang, and J. Liu, “Partial Network Coding: Theory and Application for Continuous Sensor Data Collection,” Proc. IEEE 14th IEEE Int'l Workshop Quality of Service (IWQoS '06), pp.93-101, 2006.
[28] A.G. Dimakis, V. Prabhakaran, and K. Ramchandran, “Decentralized Erasure Codes for Distributed Networked Storage,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 2809-2816, June 2006.
[29] G.L. Nemhauser and L.A. Wosley, Integer and Combinatorial Optimization. Wiley-Interscience Series in Discrete Math. and Optimization, 1999.
[30] X. Yong, D. Harrison, S. Kalyanaraman, K. Ramachandran, and A. Venkatesan, “Accumulation-Based Congestion Control,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 69-80, Feb. 2005.
[31] I. Paschalidis and Y. Liu, “Pricing in Multiservice Loss Networks: Static Pricing, Asymptotic Optimality and Demand Substitution Effects,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 425-438, June 2002.
[32] C. Beard and V. Frost, “Prioritized Resource Allocation for Stressed Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 618-633, Oct. 2001.
[33] M. Chiang, “Balancing Transport and Physical Layers in Wireless Multihop Networks: Jointly Optimal Congestion Control and Power Control,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 23, no. 1, pp.104-116, Jan. 2005.
[34] Y. Zhang, O. Yang, and H. Liu, “A Lagrangean Relaxation and Subgradient Framework for the Routing and Wavelength Assignment Problem in WDM Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1752-1765, Nov. 2004.
[35] E.W.M. Wong, A.K.M. Chan, and T.-S.P. Yum, “Analysis of Rerouting in Circuit-Switched Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 419-427, June 2000.
[36] K.-C. Lee and V.O.K. Li, “A Wavelength Rerouting Algorithm in Wide-Area All-Optical Networks,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1218-1229, June 1996.
[37] A. Donner, M. Berioli, and M. Werner, “MPLS-Based Satellite Constellation Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 438-448, Apr. 2004.
[38] K. Pahlavan et al., “Handoff in Hybrid Mobile Data Networks,” IEEE Personal Comm., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 34-47, Apr. 2000.
[39] J. McNair, I.F. Akyildiz, and M. Bender, “An Inter-System Handoff Technique for the IMT-2000 System,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '00, vol. 1, pp. 208-216, 2000.
[40] J. McNair and F. Zhu, “Vertical Handoffs in Fourth-Generation Multinetwork Environments,” IEEE Wireless Comm., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 8-15, June 2004.
[41] Y. Pan, M. Lee, J.B. Kim, and T. Suda, “An End-to-End Multipath Smooth Handoff Scheme for Stream Media,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 653-663, May 2004.
[42] F. Harary, Graph Theory. Westview Press, 1994.
[43] R. Raz and S. Safra, “A Sub-Constant Error-Probability Low-Degree Test, and Sub-Constant Error-Probability PCP Characterization of NP,” Proc. 29th Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing (STOC '97), pp. 475-484, 1997.
[44] C.H. Papadimitriou and K. Steiglitz, Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Complexity. Dover Publications, 1998.
[45] CPLEX Mathematical Programming Optimizer, http://www.ilog. com/productscplex/, 2008.
[46] L. Breslau, P. Cao, L. Fan, G. Phillips, and S. Shenker, “Web Caching and Zipf-Like Distributions: Evidence and Implications,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '99, vol. 1, pp. 126-134, 1999.
[47] V.N. Padmanabhan and L. Qiu, “The Content and Access Dynamics of a Busy Web Site: Findings and Implications,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '00, pp. 111-123, 2000.
[48] B. Fortz and M. Thorup, “Optimizing OSPF/IS-IS Weights in a Changing World,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 756-767, May 2002.

Index Terms:
Multicast, Network Architecture and Design
De-Nian Yang, Ming-Syan Chen, "Data Broadcast with Adaptive Network Coding in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 109-125, Jan. 2009, doi:10.1109/TMC.2008.97
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.