This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Energy-Efficient Boundary Detection for RF-Based Localization Systems
January 2009 (vol. 8 no. 1)
pp. 29-40
Tsung-Han Lin, National Taiwan University, Taipei
Polly Huang, National Taiwan University, Taipei
Hao-Hua Chu, National Taiwan University, Taipei
Chuang-Wen You, National Taiwan University, Taipei
Boundary detection is a form of location-aware services that aims at detecting targets crossing certain critical regions. Typically, a lower location sampling rate contributes to a lower level of energy consumption but, in the meantime, delays the detection of boundary crossing events. Opting to enable energy-efficient boundary detection services, we propose a mobility-aware mechanism that adapts the location sampling rate to the target mobility. Results from our simulations and live experiments confirm that the proposed adaptive sampling mechanism is effective. In particular, when experimented with realistic errors measured from a live RF-based localization system, the energy consumption can be reduced significantly to 20%.

[1] M. Hazas, J. Scott, and J. Krumm, “Location-Aware Computing Comes of Age,” Computer, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 95-97, 2004.
[2] M. Youssef and A.K. Agrawala, “Handling Samples Correlation in the Horus System,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004.
[3] K. Lorincz and M. Welsh, “MoteTrack: A Robust, Decentralized Approach to RF-Based Location Tracking,” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 489-503, 2007.
[4] D. Madigan, E. Einahrawy, R.P. Martin, W.-H. Ju, P. Krishnan, and A.S. Krishnakumar, “Bayesian Indoor Positioning Systems,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, pp. 1217-1227, 2005.
[5] K. Yedavalli, B. Krishnamachari, S. Ravula, and B. Srinivasan, “Ecolocation: A Sequence Based Technique for RF Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '05), pp. 285-292, 2005.
[6] N. Ravi, P. Shankar, A. Frankel, A. Elgammal, and L. Iftode, “Indoor Localization Using Camera Phones,” Proc. Seventh IEEE Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications: Supplement (WMCSA '06), pp. 1-7, 2006.
[7] M.B. Kjærgaard, G. Treu, and C. Linnhoff-Popien, “Zone-Based RSS Reporting for Location Fingerprinting,” Pervasive, pp. 316-333, 2007.
[8] L. Breslau, D. Estrin, K.R. Fall, S. Floyd, J.S. Heidemann, A. Helmy, P. Huang, S. McCanne, K. Varadhan, Y. Xu, and H. Yu, “Advances in Network Simulation,” Computer, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 59-67, 2000.
[9] D. Johnson and D. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Mobile Computing, vol. 353, pp. 153-181, 1996.
[10] J. Hightower and G. Borriello, “Particle Filters for Location Estimation in Ubiquitous Computing: A Case Study,” Ubicomp, pp. 88-106, 2004.
[11] J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, and D.E. Culler, “Telos: Enabling Ultra-Low Power Wireless Research,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '05), pp. 364-369, 2005.
[12] Chipcon: CC2420 802.15.4 Compliant Radio, http:/, 2008.
[13] ADXL202 Datasheet, http:/, Oct. 2000.
[14] ADXL330 Datasheet, http:/, Sept. 2006.
[15] S. Basagni, I. Chlamtac, V.R. Syrotiuk, and B.A. Woodward, “ADistance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (Dream),” Proc. ACM MobiCom '98, pp. 76-84, 1998.
[16] A. Bhattacharya and S.K. Das, “Lezi-Update: An Information-Theoretic Framework for Personal Mobility Tracking in PCS Networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 8, no. 2/3, pp. 121-135, 2002.
[17] G. Wan and E.C. Lin, “A Dynamic Paging Scheme for Wireless Communication Systems,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '97, pp. 195-203, 1997.
[18] Y. Xu, J. Winter, and W.-C. Lee, “Prediction-Based Strategies for Energy Saving in Object Tracking Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Mobile Data Management (MDM '04), pp. 346-357, 2004.
[19] G. Debunne, M. Desbrun, M.-P. Cani, and A.H. Barr, “Dynamic Real-Time Deformations Using Space and Time Adaptive Sampling,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '01, pp. 31-36, 2001.
[20] M.A. Batalin, M.H. Rahimi, Y. Yu, D. Liu, A. Kansal, G.S. Sukhatme, W.J. Kaiser, M.M. Hansen, G.J. Pottie, M.B. Srivastava, and D. Estrin, “Call and Response: Experiments in Sampling the Environment,” Proc. Second ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '04), pp. 25-38, 2004.
[21] V. Raghunathan, S. Ganeriwal, and M. Srivastava, “Emerging Techniques for Long Lived Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 108-114, 2006.
[22] L. Cong and W. Zhuang, “Hybrid TDOA/AOA Mobile User Location for Wideband CDMA Cellular Systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 439-447, July 2002.
[23] N. Patwari, I. Hero, A.O. , M. Perkins, N. Correal, and R. O'Dea, “Relative Location Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 2137-2148, Aug. 2003.
[24] D. Niculescu, “Positioning in Ad Hoc Sensor Networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 24-29, 2004.
[25] P. Bahl and V.N. Padmanabhan, “Radar: An In-Building RF-Based User Location and Tracking System,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '00, pp. 775-784, 2000.
[26] N.B. Priyantha, A. Chakraborty, and H. Balakrishnan, “The Cricket Location-Support System,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '00, pp. 32-43, 2000.
[27] S.-Y. Yeh, K.-H. Chang, C.-I. Wu, H.-H. Chu, and J.Y.-J. Hsu, “Geta Sandals: A Footstep Location Tracking System,” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 451-463, 2007.
[28] S.-W. Lee and K. Mase, “Incremental Motion-Based Location Recognition,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers (ISWC '01), p. 123, 2001.
[29] C.E. Jones, K.M. Sivalingam, P. Agrawal, and J.-C. Chen, “A Survey of Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless Networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 343-358, 2001.
[30] A.P. Chandrakasan and R.W. Brodersen, Low Power Digital CMOS Design. Kluwer Academic Publisher, 1995.
[31] S. Singh and C.S. Raghavendra, “Pamas-Power Aware Multi-Access Protocol with Signalling for Ad Hoc Networks,” SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 5-26, 1998.
[32] K.M. Sivalingam, J.-C. Chen, P. Agrawal, and M.B. Srivastava, “Design and Analysis of Low-Power Access Protocols for Wireless and Mobile ATM Networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 73-87, 2000.
[33] L.M. Feeney, “An Energy Consumption Model for Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 239-249, 2001.

Index Terms:
JWireless sensor networks, Efficiency
Tsung-Han Lin, Polly Huang, Hao-Hua Chu, Chuang-Wen You, "Energy-Efficient Boundary Detection for RF-Based Localization Systems," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 29-40, Jan. 2009, doi:10.1109/TMC.2008.84
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.