This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Dynamic Forwarding over Tree-on-DAG for Scalable Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks
October 2008 (vol. 7 no. 10)
pp. 1271-1284
Kai-Wei Fan, The Ohio State University, Columbus
Sha Liu, The Ohio State University, Columbus
Prasun Sinha, The Ohio State University, Columbus
Computing and maintaining network structures for efficient data aggregation incurs high overhead for dynamic events where the set of nodes sensing an event changes with time. Moreover, structured approaches are sensitive to the waiting-time which is used by nodes to wait for packets from their children before forwarding the packet to the sink. Although structure-less approaches can address these issues, the performance does not scale well with the network size. We propose ToD, a semi-structured approach that uses Dynamic Forwarding on an implicitly constructed structure composed of multiple shortest path trees to support network scalability. The key principle behind ToD is that adjacent nodes in a graph will have low stretch in one of these trees in ToD, thus resulting in early aggregation of packets. Based on simulations on a $2000$ nodes network and real experiments on a $105$ nodes Mica2-based network, we conclude that efficient aggregation in large scale networks can be achieved by our semi-structured approach.

[1] W. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 1, pp. 660-670, Oct. 2002.
[2] C. Intanagonwiwat, D. Estrin, R. Govindan, and J. Heidemann, “Impact of Network Density on Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. 22nd Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '02), pp. 457-458, July 2002.
[3] W. Zhang and G. Cao, “DCTC: Dynamic Convoy Tree-based Collaboration for Target Tracking in Sensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 3, pp. 1689-1701, Sept. 2004.
[4] M. Ding, X. Cheng, and G. Xue, “Aggregation Tree Construction in Sensor Networks,” Proc. 58th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC '03), vol. 4, pp. 2168-2172, Oct. 2003.
[5] H. Luo, J. Luo, and Y. Liu, “Energy Efficient Routing with Adaptive Data Fusion in Sensor Networks,” Proc. Third ACM/SIGMOBILE Workshop Foundations of Mobile Computing, Aug. 2005.
[6] A. Goel and D. Estrin, “Simultaneous Optimization for Concave Costs: Single Sink Aggregation or Single Source Buy-at-Bulk,” Proc. 14th Ann. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms (SODA), 2003.
[7] Networked Infomechanical Systems, http:/, 2007.
[8] Center for Embedded Networked Sensing at UCLA, http:/, 2007.
[9] J. Polastre, “Design and Implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring,” Master's thesis, Univ. of California at Berkeley, Spring 2003.
[10] A. Mainwaring, R. Szewczyk, J. Anderson, and J. Polastre, Habitat Monitoring on Great Duck Island, http:/, 2007.
[11] A. Arora, P. Dutta, and S. Bapat, Line in the Sand: A Wireless Sensor Network for Target Detection, Classification, and Tracking, OSU-CISRC-12/03-TR71, 2003.
[12] ExScal, http://www.cast.cse.ohio-state.eduexscal /, 2007.
[13] Chemical/Bio Defense and Sensor Networks, Sental Corporation, , 2007.
[14] K.W. Fan, S. Liu, and P. Sinha, “On the Potential of Structure-Free Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '06, Apr. 2006.
[15] K.W. Fan, S. Liu, and P. Sinha, “Scalable Data Aggregation for Dynamic Events in Sensor Networks,” Proc. Fourth ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '06), Nov. 2006.
[16] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, D. Estrin, J. Heidemann, and F. Silva, “Directed Diffusion for Wireless Sensor Networking,” IEEE Trans. Networking, vol. 11, pp. 2-16, Feb. 2003.
[17] S. Madden, M.J. Franklin, J.M. Hellerstein, and W. Hong, “TAG: A Tiny AGgregation Service for Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks,” Proc. Fifth Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI '02), pp. 131-146, Dec. 2002.
[18] S. Madden, R. Szewczyk, M.J. Franklin, and D. Culler, “Supporting Aggregate Queries over Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Fourth IEEE Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (WMCSA '04), pp. 49-58, June 2004.
[19] S. Lindsey, C. Raghavendra, and K.M. Sivalingam, “Data Gathering Algorithms in Sensor Networks Using Energy Metrics,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 13, pp. 924-935, Sept. 2002.
[20] J. Wong, R. Jafari, and M. Potkonjak, “Gateway Placement for Latency and Energy Efficient Data Aggregation,” Proc. 29th Ann. IEEE Int'l Conf. Local Computer Networks (LCN '04), pp. 490-497, Nov. 2004.
[21] B.J. Culpepper, L. Dung, and M. Moh, “Design and Analysis of Hybrid Indirect Transmissions (HIT) for Data Gathering in Wireless Micro Sensor Networks,” ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev., vol. 8, pp. 61-83, Jan. 2004.
[22] H.F. Salama, D.S. Reeves, and Y. Viniotis, “Evaluation of Multicast Routing Algorithms for Real-Time Communication on High-Speed Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Area in Comm., vol. 15, Apr. 1997.
[23] R. Cristescu, B. Beferull-Lozano, and M. Vetterli, “On Network Correlated Data Gathering,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '04, vol. 4, pp.2571-2582, Mar. 2004.
[24] A. Scaglione and S.D. Servetto, “On the Interdependence of Routing and Data Compression in Multi-Hop Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '02, pp. 140-147, Sept. 2002.
[25] A. Scaglione, “Routing and Data Compression in Sensor Networks: Stochastic Models for Sensor Data That Guarantee Scalability,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Theory (ISIT '03), p. 174, June 2003.
[26] R. Cristescu and M. Vetterli, “Power Efficient Gathering of Correlated Data: Optimization, NP-Completeness and Heuristics,” Summaries of MobiHoc 2003 Posters, vol. 7, pp. 31-32, July 2003.
[27] S. Pattern, B. Krishnamachari, and R. Govindan, “The Impact of Spatial Correlation on Routing with Compression in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Third Int'l Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '04), pp. 28-35, Apr. 2004.
[28] Y. Zhu, K. Sundaresan, and R. Sivakumar, “Practical Limits on Achievable Energy Improvements and Useable Delay Tolerance in Correlation Aware Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Second Ann. IEEE Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks, Sept. 2005.
[29] L. Cai and D. Corneil, “Tree Spanners,” SIAM J. Discrete Math., vol. 8, 1995.
[30] N. Alon, R.M. Karp, D. Peleg, and D. West, “A Graph Theoretic Game and Its Application to the K-Server Problem,” SIAM J.Computing, vol. 24, 1995.
[31] D. Peleg and D. Tendler, “Low Stretch Spanning Trees for Planar Graphs,” Technical Report MCS01-14, Math. and Computer Science, Weizmann Inst. Science, 2001.
[32] A. Arora et al., “ExScal: Elements of an Extreme Scale Wireless Sensor Network,” Proc. 11th IEEE Int'l Conf. Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA '05), Aug. 2005.
[33] Millimeter-Wave Radar Detection of Chemicals, Gases, and Radiation, Argonne Nat'l Laboratory, , 2007.
[34] N. Bulusu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “GPS-less Low Cost Outdoor Localization for Very Small Devices,” IEEE Personal Comm., special issue on Smart Spaces and Environments, vol. 7, Oct. 2000.
[35] D. Moore, J. Leonard, D. Rus, and S. Teller, “Robust Distributed Network Localization with Noisy Range Measurements,” Proc. Second ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '04), pp. 50-61, Nov. 2004.
[36] K.W. Fan, S. Liu, and P. Sinha, “Dynamic Forwarding over Tree-on-DAG for Scalable Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks,” Technical Report, OSU-CISRC-02/08-TR8, Dept. CSE, OSU, Feb. 2008.
[37] E. Ertin, A. Arora, R. Ramnath, M. Nesterenko, V. Naik, S. Bapat, V. Kulathumani, M. Sridharan, H. Zhang, and H. Cao, “Kansei: A Testbed for Sensing at Scale,” Proc. Fourth Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN/SPOTS Track), 2006.
[38] A. Arora, E. Ertin, R. Ramnath, W. Leal, and M. Nesterenko, “Kansei: A High-Fidelity Sensing Testbed,” IEEE Internet Computing, special issue on Large-Scale Sensor Networks, Mar. 2006.
[39] Crossbow, Crossbow, http:/, 2007.
[40] W. Zhang and G. Cao, “Optimizing Tree Reconfiguration for Mobile Target Tracking in Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '04, vol. 4, pp. 2434-2445, Mar. 2004.
[41] K. Gabriel and R. Sokal, “A New Statistical Approach to Geographic Variation Analysis,” Systematic Zoology, pp. 259-278, 1969.

Index Terms:
Routing protocols, Wireless
Kai-Wei Fan, Sha Liu, Prasun Sinha, "Dynamic Forwarding over Tree-on-DAG for Scalable Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1271-1284, Oct. 2008, doi:10.1109/TMC.2008.55
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.