This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Adaptive FEC-Based Packet Loss Resilience Scheme for Supporting Voice Communication over Ad hoc Wireless Networks
October 2008 (vol. 7 no. 10)
pp. 1184-1199
Venkat Raju Gandikota, IIT Madras, Chennai
Bheemajun Reddy Tamma, University of California San Diego, San Diego
C. Siva Ram Murthy, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai
Providing real-time voice support over multihop ad hoc wireless networks is a challenging task. To make a voice application feasible over ad hoc wireless networks, the perceived voice quality must be improved while not significantly increasing the packet overhead. We suggest packet-level media-dependent adaptive forward error correction (FEC) at the application layer in tandem with multipath transport for improving the voice quality. Since adaptive FEC masks packet losses in the network, at the medium access control (MAC) layer, we avoid retransmissions in order to reduce the control overhead and end-to-end delay. Further, we exploit the combined strengths of layered coding and multiple description (MD) coding for supporting error resilient voice communication in ad hoc wireless networks. We propose an efficient packetization scheme in which the important sub-stream of the voice stream is protected adaptively with FEC depending on the loss rate present in the network and is transmitted over two maximally node-disjoint paths. Our scheme achieves significant gains in terms of reduced frame loss rate, reduced control overhead, and minimum end-to-end delay and almost doubles the perceived voice quality compared to the existing approaches.

[1] ITU-T Recommendation, G.114, One Way Transmission Time, Feb. 1996.
[2] J.D. Gibson, A. Servetti, H. Dong, A. Gersho, T. Lookabaugh, and J.C. De Martin, “Selective Encryption and Scalable Speech Coding for Voice Communications over Multihop Wireless Links,” Proc. IEEE Military Comm. Conf. (MILCOM '04), vol. 2, pp. 792-798, Nov. 2004.
[3] C.-h. Lin, H. Dong, U. Madhow, and A. Gersho, “Supporting Real-Time Speech on Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Inter-packet Redundancy, Path Diversity, and Multiple Description Coding,” Proc. Second ACM Int'l Workshop Wireless Mobile Applications and Services on WLAN Hotspots (WMASH '04), pp. 11-20, Oct. 2004.
[4] X. Yu, J.W. Modestino, and I.V. Bajic, “Modeling and Analysis of Multipath Video Transport over Lossy Networks,” Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. Distributed Multimedia Systems (DMS '05), pp. 265-270, Sept. 2005.
[5] L. Munoz, M. Garcia, J. Choque, R. Aguero, and P. Mahonen, “Optimizing Internet Flows over IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Networks: A Performance-Enhancing Proxy Based on Forward Error Correction,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 60-67, Dec. 2001.
[6] S. Aramvith, C.-W. Lin, So. Roy, and M.-T. Sun, “Wireless Video Transport Using Conditional Retransmission and Low-Delay Interleaving,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology (CSVT '02), vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 558-565, June 2002.
[7] G. Rubino and M. Varela, “Evaluating the Utility of Media-Dependent FEC in VoIP Flows,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Workshop Quality of Future Internet Services (QofIS '04), pp. 31-43, Sept. 2004.
[8] Z. Zhou, P.K. McKinley, and S.M. Sadjadi, “On Quality-of-Service and Energy Consumption Tradeoffs in FEC-Encoded Audio Streaming,” Proc. 12th IEEE Int'l Workshop Quality of Service (IWQoS '04), pp. 161-170, June 2004.
[9] H. Wu, C. Hung, M. Gerla, and R. Bagrodia, “Speech Support in Wireless Multihop Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Parallel Architectures, Algorithms, and Networks (ISPAN '97), pp. 282-288, Dec. 1997.
[10] H. Dong, A. Gersho, J. Gibson, and V. Cuperman, “A Multiple Description Speech Coder Based on AMR-WB for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '04), vol. 1, pp. 277-280, May 2004.
[11] Y. Wang, M. Orchard, V. Vaishampayan, and A. Reibman, “Multiple Description Coding Using Pairwise Correlating Transforms,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 351-366, Mar. 2001.
[12] V.K. Goyal and J. Kovacevic, “Generalized Multiple Description Coding with Correlating Transforms,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 2199-2224, Sept. 2001.
[13] J.G. Apostolopoulos, T. Wong, W. Tan, and S. Wee, “On Multiple Description Streaming with Content Delivery Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '02, vol. 3, pp. 1736-1745, June 2002.
[14] J-C. Bolot, S. Fosse-Parisis, and D. Towsley, “Adaptive FEC-Based Error Control for Internet Telephony,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '99, vol. 3, pp. 1453-1460, Mar. 1999.
[15] C. Perkins, O. Hodson, and V. Hardman, “A Survey of Packet Loss Recovery Techniques for Streaming Audio,” IEEE Network, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 40-48, Oct. 1998.
[16] Y.S. Liaw, A. Dadej, and A. Jayasuriya, “Throughput Performance of Multiple Independent Paths in Wireless Multihop Network,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '04), vol. 7, pp.4157-4161, June 2004.
[17] The Network Simulator—NS-2,, 2008.
[18] T. Camp, J. Boleng, and V. Davies, “A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research,” Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing: Special Issue on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: Research, Trends and Applications, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 483-502, Sept. 2002.
[19] /, 2008.
[20] D.B. Johnson and D.A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in AdHoc Wireless Networks,” Mobile Computing, vol. 353, pp. 153-181, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.
[21] 3GPP TS 26.171: Adaptive Multi-Rate Wide Band Speech Codec, , 2008.
[22] W. Jiang and H. Schulzrinne, “QoS Measurement of Internet Real-Time Multimedia Services,” Technical Report-CUCS-015-99, Columbia Univ., Dec. 1999.
[23] E. Elliot, “A Model of the Switched Telephone Network for Data Communications,” Bell Labs Technical J., pp. 80-109, Jan. 1963.
[24] M. Yajnik, S. Moon, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, “Measurement and Modelling of the Temporal Dependence in Packet Loss,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '99, vol. 1, pp. 345-352, Mar. 1999.
[25] Proposed Modification to P.862 to Allow PESQ to be Used for Quality Assessment of Wideband Speech, ITU-T SG12 Delayed Contribution COM-D007-E, Feb. 2001.

Index Terms:
Wireless communication, Applications
Venkat Raju Gandikota, Bheemajun Reddy Tamma, C. Siva Ram Murthy, "Adaptive FEC-Based Packet Loss Resilience Scheme for Supporting Voice Communication over Ad hoc Wireless Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1184-1199, Oct. 2008, doi:10.1109/TMC.2008.42
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.