This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
A Distributed Localization Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks with Improved Grid-Scan and Vector-Based Refinement
September 2008 (vol. 7 no. 9)
pp. 1110-1123
Localization is a fundamental and essential issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Existing localization algorithms can be categorized as either range-based or range-free schemes. Range-based schemes are not suitable for WSNs because of their irregularity of radio propagation and their cost of additional devices. In contrast, range-free schemes do not need to use received signal strength to estimate distances and only need simple and cheap hardware, and are thus more suitable for WSNs. However, existing range-free schemes are too costly and not accurate enough or are not scalable. To improve previous work, we present a fully distributed range-free localization scheme for WSNs. We assume that only a few sensor nodes, called anchors, know their locations, and the remaining (normal) nodes need to estimate their own locations by gathering nearby neighboring information. We propose an improved grid-scan algorithm to find the estimated locations of the normal nodes. Furthermore, we derive a vector-based refinement scheme to improve the accuracy of the estimated locations. Analysis, simulation, and experiment results show that our scheme outperforms the other range-free schemes even when the communication radius is irregular.

[1] A. Savvides, C.-C. Han, and M.B. Strivastava, “Dynamic Fine-Grained Localization in Ad-Hoc Networks of Sensors,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '01, pp. 166-179, July 2001.
[2] N.B. Priyantha, A. Chakraborty, and H. Balakrishnan, “The Cricket Location-Support System,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '00, pp. 32-43, Aug. 2000.
[3] A. Nasipuri and K. Li, “A Directionality Based Location Discovery Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, pp. 105-111, Sept. 2002.
[4] M.M. Patil, U. Shaha, U.B. Desai, and S.N. Merchant, “Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Three Masters,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Personal Wireless Comm., pp. 384-388, Jan. 2005.
[5] Y. Ohta, M. Sugano, and M. Murata, “Autonomous Localization Method in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Sensor Networks and Systems for Pervasive Computing, pp. 379-384, Mar. 2005.
[6] N.B. Priyantha, H. Balakrishnan, E. Demaine, and S. Teller, “Anchor-Free Distributed Localization in Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '03), pp. 340-341, Nov. 2003.
[7] J. Albowicz, A. Chen, and L. Zhang, “Recursive Position Estimation in Sensor Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Network Protocols, pp. 35-41, Nov. 2001.
[8] N. Bulusu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “GPS-Less Low Cost Outdoor Localization for Very Small Devices,” IEEE Personal Comm. Magazine, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 28-34, Oct. 2000.
[9] J. Blumenthal, F. Reichenbach, and D. Timmermann, “Position Estimation in Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks with Low Complexity,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Positioning, Navigation, and Comm., pp. 41-49, Mar. 2005.
[10] D. Niculescu and B. Nath, “Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS),” Proc. Global Telecomm. Conf. (Globecom '01), vol. 1, pp.2926-2931, Nov. 2001.
[11] D. Niculescu and B. Nath, “DV Based Positioning in Ad Hoc Networks,” J. Telecomm. Systems, vol. 22, pp. 267-280, Jan.-Apr. 2003.
[12] X. Li, H. Shi, and Y. Shang, “A Partial-Range-Aware Localization Algorithm for Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Local Computer Networks, pp. 77-83, Aug. 2004.
[13] T. He, C. Huang, B.M. Blum, J.A. Stankovic, and T. Abdelzher, “Range-Free Localization Schemes for Large Scale Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '03, pp. 81-95, Sept. 2003.
[14] L. Doherty, K.S.J. Pister, and L.E. Ghaoui, “Convex Position Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '01, vol. 3, pp. 1655-1663, Apr. 2001.
[15] A. Galstyan, B. Krishnamachari, S. Pattem, and K. Lerman, “Distributed Online Localization in Sensor Networks Using a Moving Target,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks, pp. 61-70, Apr. 2004.
[16] J. Hightower and G. Borriello, “Location Systems for Ubiquitous Computing,” Computer, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 57-66, Aug. 2001.
[17] G.M. Djuknic and R.E. Richton, “Geolocation and Assisted GPS,” Computer, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 123-125, Feb. 2001.
[18] G.J. Pottie and W.J. Kaiser, “Wireless Integrated Network Sensors,” Comm. ACM, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 51-58, May 2000.
[19] J.-P. Sheu, S.-C. Tu, and C.-H. Yu, “A Distributed Query Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Wireless Personal Comm., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 449-464, June 2007.
[20] J.-P. Sheu, J.-M. Li, and C.-S. Hsu, “A Distributed Location Estimating Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, and Trustworthy Computing (SUTC '06), vol. 1, pp. 218-225, June 2006.
[21] L. Hu and D. Evans, “Localization for Mobile Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '04, pp. 45-47, Sept. 2004.
[22] M. Rudafshani and S. Datta, “Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '07), pp. 51-60, Apr. 2007.
[23] A. Uchiyama, S. Fujii, K. Maeda, T. Umedu, H. Yamaguchi, and T. Higashino, “Ad-Hoc Localization in Urban District,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '07, pp. 2306-2310, May 2007.
[24] K. Whitehouse and D. Culler, “A Robustness Analysis of Multi-Hop Ranging-Based Localization Approximations,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '06), pp. 317-325, Apr. 2006.
[25] R. Stoleru, P. Vicaire, T. He, and J.A. Stankovic, “StarDust: A Flexible Architecture for Passive Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '06), pp. 57-70, Oct. 2006.
[26] A. Basu, J. Gao, J.S.B. Mitchell, and G. Sabhnani, “Distributed Localization Using Noisy Distance and Angle Information,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc '06, pp. 263-273, May 2006.

Index Terms:
Sensor networks, Wireless sensor networks
Citation:
Jang-Ping Sheu, Pei-Chun Chen, Chih-Shun Hsu, "A Distributed Localization Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks with Improved Grid-Scan and Vector-Based Refinement," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 1110-1123, Sept. 2008, doi:10.1109/TMC.2008.35
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.