This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Revisiting the Hidden Terminal Problem in a CSMA/CA Wireless Network
July 2008 (vol. 7 no. 7)
pp. 817-831
Recently research interest in the performance analysis of wireless networks was revived. An issue of an utmost importance in this class of networks, classified as one of the severest reasons for the degradation of their performance, is the hidden terminal problem. In this paper we argue that an accurate analysis of the effect of hidden nodes in the performance of a random access protocol is still an open issue. Firstly, we thoroughly explain the reasons behind the limitations of previous modelling methods, and show that their performance is reliable only for certain configurations. Secondly, and most importantly, we propose a novel method of modelling time that uses a fixed-length channel slot as the unit of time and does not rely on renewal theory. With these features the model is able to successfully take into account the desynchronisation of nodes in a hidden terminal environment. Our analytical model is shown to have a very close match to simulation results for an IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol and for all the system parameters considered, unlike conventional methods.

[1] K. Xu, M. Gerla, and S. Bae, “How Effective Is the IEEE 802.11 RTS/CTS Handshake in Ad Hoc Networks?” Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf. (GLOBECOM '02), vol. 1, pp. 72-76, Nov. 2002.
[2] G. Anastasi, E. Borgia, M. Conti, and E. Gregori, “IEEE 802.11b AdHoc Networks: Performance Measurements,” Cluster Computing, vol. 8, nos. 2-3, pp. 135-145, July 2005.
[3] I. Akyildiz and X. Wang, “A Survey on Wireless Mesh Networks,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. S23-S30, Sept. 2005.
[4] R. Bruno, M. Conti, and E. Gregori, “Mesh Networks: Commodity Multihop Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 123-131, Mar. 2005.
[5] ANSI/IEEE Standard 802.11-1999, Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, IEEE, 1999.
[6] A. Tsertou and D.I. Laurenson, “Modeling the Effect of BEB for a Hidden Terminal Topology from a New Perspective,” Proc. Third Ann. IEEE Conf. Sensor, Mesh, and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON '06), vol. 2, pp. 607-614, Sept. 2006.
[7] L. Kleinrock and F. Tobagi, “Packet Switching in Radio Channels: Part 1—Carrier Sense Multiple-Access Modes and Their Throughput-Delay Characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 23, no. 12, pp.1400-1416, Dec. 1975.
[8] F. Tobagi and L. Kleinrock, “Packet Switching in Radio Channels: Part 2—The Hidden Terminal Problem in Carrier Sense Multiple Access and the Busy-Tone Solution,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1417-1433, Dec. 1975.
[9] R.R. Boorstyn, A. Kerschenbaum, B. Maglaris, and V. Sahin, “Throughput Analysis in Multihop CSMA Packet Radio Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 267-274, Mar. 1987.
[10] X. Wang and K. Kar, “Throughput Modelling and Fairness Issues in CSMA/CA Based Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 3, pp. 1997-2007, 2005.
[11] Y. Wang and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “Performance of Collision Avoidance Protocols in Single-Channel Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. 10th IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP '02), 2002.
[12] M. Carvalho and J.J. Garcia-Luna Aceves, “A Scalable Model for Channel Access Protocols in Multihop Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 330-344, 2004.
[13] F. Cali, M. Conti, and E. Gregori, “Dynamic Tuning of the IEEE 802.11 Protocol to Achieve a Theoretical Throughput Limit,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 13, pp. 785-799, Dec. 2000.
[14] G. Bianchi, “Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 535-547, Mar. 2000.
[15] Y. Fang and B. McDonald, “Theoretical Channel Capacity in Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. 13th IEEE Workshop Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN '04), pp. 33-38, 2004.
[16] F. Alizadeh-Shabdiz and S. Subramaniam, “MAC Layer Performance Analysis of Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf. (GLOBECOM '04), vol. 5, pp. 2781-2785, 2004.
[17] H. Chhaya and K. Gupta, “Performance Modeling of Asynchronous Data Transfer Methods of IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol,” IEEE Personal Comm., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 8-15, Oct. 1996.
[18] C. Chaudet et al., “Study of the Impact of Asymmetry and Carrier Sense Mechanism in IEEE 802.11 Multi-Hop Networks through a Basic Case,” Proc. ACM Workshop Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous Networks (PEWASUN '04), 2004.
[19] S. Ray, D. Starobinski, and J. Carruthers, “Performance of Wireless Networks with Hidden Nodes: A Queueing Theoretic Analysis,” J. Computer Comm., special issue on performance issues of WLANs, PANs, and ad hoc networks, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1179-1192. June 2005.
[20] M. Garetto, J. Shi, and E. Knightly, “Modeling Media Access in Embedded Two-Flow Topologies of Multi-Hop Wireless Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 200-214, 2005.
[21] K.S. Trivedi, Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing and Computer Science Applications. Wiley-Interscience, 2002.
[22] E.T. Jaynes, Probability Theory: The Logic of Science. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003.
[23] E. Castillo et al., Extreme Value and Related Models with Applications in Engineering and Science. Wiley-Interscience, 2004.

Index Terms:
Wireless communication, Standards, Protocol verification, Modeling techniques, Markov processes, Renewal theory, Distribution functions
Athanasia Tsertou, David I. Laurenson, "Revisiting the Hidden Terminal Problem in a CSMA/CA Wireless Network," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 817-831, July 2008, doi:10.1109/TMC.2007.70757
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.