The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.05 - May (2008 vol.7)
pp: 533-545
ABSTRACT
Sensing/monitoring of spectrum-availability has been identified as a key requirement for dynamic spectrum allocation in cognitive radio networks. One of the most important issues of MAC-layer sensing is how often to schedule concurrent measurements on licensed channels, and in which order to sense those channels. To resolve this issue, we address (i) how to maximize discovery of spectrum-opportunities by sensing-period adaptation, and (ii) how to minimize the delay in finding an available channel. Specifically, we develop a sensing-period optimization mechanism and an optimal channel-sequencing algorithm, as well as an environment-adaptive channel-usage pattern estimation method. Our simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed schemes and its significant performance improvement over non-optimal schemes. The sensing-period optimization discovers more than 98% of the analytical maximum of discoverable spectrum-opportunities, regardless of the number of channels sensed. For the scenarios tested, the proposed scheme is shown to discover up to 22% more opportunities than non-optimal schemes, which may become even greater with a proper choice of initial sensing-periods. The idle-channel discovery delay with the optimal channel-sequencing technique spans from 0.08 to 0.35 second under the tested scenarios, which is faster than non-optimal schemes. Moreover, our estimation method is shown to track time-varying channel-parameters accurately.
INDEX TERMS
Emerging technologies, communication, Network management, Network monitoring, Mobile communication systems
CITATION
Hyoil Kim, Kang G. Shin, "Efficient Discovery of Spectrum Opportunities with MAC-Layer Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.7, no. 5, pp. 533-545, May 2008, doi:10.1109/TMC.2007.70751
REFERENCES
[1] Spectrum Policy Task Force Report, ET Docket No. 02-135, Nov. 2002.
[2] C. Bergstrom, S. Chuprun, and D. Torrieri, “Adaptive Spectrum Exploitation Using Emerging Software Defined Radios,” Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Conf., pp. 113-116, Aug. 1999.
[3] S. Haykin, “Cognitive Radio: Brain-Empowered Wireless Comm.,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 201-220, Feb. 2005.
[4] W.D. Horne, “Adaptive Spectrum Access: Using the Full Spectrum Space,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Advanced Radio Technologies, Mar. 2003.
[5] Vision RFC, http://www.ir.bbn.com/projects/xmac/rfcrfc- vision.pdf , 2007.
[6] Arch. RFC, http://www.ir.bbn.com/projects/xmac/rfcrfc-af.pdf , 2007.
[7] Facilitating Opportunities for Flexible, Efficient, and Reliable Spectrum Use Employing Cognitive Radio Technologies, FCC Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Order—ET Docket 03-108, Dec. 2003.
[8] D. Cabric, S.M. Mishra, and R.W. Brodersen, “Implementation Issues in Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios,” Proc. Asilomar Conf. Signals, Systems, and Computers, pp. 772-776, Nov. 2004.
[9] H. Tang, “Some Physical Layer Issues of Wide-Band Cognitive Radio Systems,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '05), pp. 151-159, Nov. 2005.
[10] S. Shankar, C. Cordeiro, and K. Challapali, “Spectrum Agile Radios: Utilization and Sensing Architectures,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '05), pp. 160-169, Nov. 2005.
[11] IEEE 802.22 Working Group on Wireless Regional Area Networks, http://www.ieee802.org22/, 2008.
[12] C.-T. Chou, “Adaptive Quality-of-Service Provisioning in Wireless/Mobile Networks,” PhD dissertation, Univ. of Michigan, 2004.
[13] T. Keller and L. Hanzo, “Adaptive Multicarrier Modulation: A Convenient Framework for Time-Frequency Processing in Wireless Communications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 611-640, May 2000.
[14] R. Rajbanshi, Q. Chen, A.M. Wyglinski, G.J. Minden, and J.B. Evans, “Quantitative Comparison of Agile Modulation Techniques for Cognitive Radio Transceivers,” Proc. Fourth IEEE Consumer Comm. and Networking Conf. Workshop Cognitive Radio Networks, pp. 1144-1148, Jan. 2007.
[15] H. Kim, C. Cordeiro, K. Challapali, and K.G. Shin, “An Experimental Approach to Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks with Off-the-Shelf IEEE 802.11 Devices,” Proc. Fourth IEEE Consumer Comm. and Networking Conf. Workshop Cognitive Radio Networks, pp. 1154-1158, Jan. 2007.
[16] C. Cordeiro, K. Challapali, and M. Ghosh, “Cognitive PHY and MAC Layers for Dynamic Spectrum Access and Sharing of TV Bands,” Proc. First Int'l Workshop Technology and Policy for Accessing Spectrum (TAPAS '06), Aug. 2006.
[17] A. Ghasemi and E.S. Sousa, “Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Opportunistic Access in Fading Environments,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '05), pp. 131-136, Nov. 2005.
[18] G. Ganesan and Y. Li, “Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '05), pp. 137-143, Nov. 2005.
[19] E. Visotsky, S. Kuffner, and R. Peterson, “On Collaborative Detection of TV Transmissions in Support of Dynamic Spectrum Sharing,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '05), pp. 338-345, Nov. 2005.
[20] D.R. Cox, Renewal Theory. Butler and Tanner, 1967.
[21] S.M. Ross, Stochastic Processes. John Wiley & Sons, 1983.
[22] C. Cordeiro, K. Challapali, D. Birru, and S. Shankar, “IEEE 802.22: The First Worldwide Wireless Standard Based on Cognitive Radios,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '05), pp. 328-337, Nov. 2005.
[23] C.R. Stevenson, C. Cordeiro, E. Sofer, and G. Chouinard, “Functional Requirements for the 802.22 WRAN Standard,” IEEE 802.22 Draft, Sept. 2005.
[24] Q. Zhao, L. Tong, and A. Swami, “Decentralized Cognitive MAC for Dynamic Spectrum Access,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '05), pp. 224-232, Nov. 2005.
[25] S. Sankaranarayanan, P. Papadimitratos, and A. Mishra, “A Bandwidth Sharing Approach to Improve Licensed Spectrum Utilization,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '05), pp. 279-288, Nov. 2005.
[26] X. Liu and S. Shankar N., “Sensing-Based Opportunistic Channel Access,” J. Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 577-591, Aug. 2006.
17 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool