This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Hop ID: A Virtual Coordinate-Based Routing for Sparse Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
September 2007 (vol. 6 no. 9)
pp. 1075-1089
Routing in wireless communication systems such as ad hoc networks remains a challenging problem given the limited wireless bandwidth, users’ mobility and potentially large scale. Recently, a thrust of research has addressed these problems--the on-demand routing, geographical routing, and virtual coordinates. In this paper, we focus on geographical routing that has been shown to achieve good scalability without flooding; however, this usually requires the availability of location information and can suffer from poor routing performance and severe dead end problems, especially in sparse networks. Specifically, we propose a new Hop ID routing scheme, which is a virtual coordinate-based routing protocol and does not require any location information. This achieves excellent routing performance comparable with that obtained by the shortest path routing schemes. In addition, we design efficient algorithms for setting up the system and adapt to the node mobility quickly, and can effectively route out of dead ends. Extensive analysis and simulation show that the Hop ID based routing achieves efficient routing for mobile ad hoc networks with various density, irregular topologies and obstacles.

[1] D.B. Johnson, D.A. Maltz, and J. Broch, “DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Ad Hoc Networking, chapter 5, pp. 139-172, Addison-Wesley, 2001.
[2] C.E. Perkins and E.M. Royer, “Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing,” Proc. Second IEEE Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, 1999.
[3] G. Pei, M. Gerla, and T. Chen, “Fisheye State Routing: A Routing Scheme for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '00), 2000.
[4] T. Clausen and P. Jacquet, Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR), IETF RFC 3026, Oct. 2003.
[5] X. Hong, K. Xu, and M. Gerla, “Scalable Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Network Magazine, pp. 11-21, July-Aug. 2002.
[6] B. Karp and H. Kung, “GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks,” Proc. MobiCom, Aug. 2000.
[7] P. Bose, P. Morin, I. Stojmenovic, and J. Urrutia, “Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks,” ACM Wireless Networks, Nov. 2001.
[8] F. Kuhn, R. Wattenhofer, Y. Zhang, and A. Zollinger, “Geometric Ad-Hoc Routing: Of Theory and Practice,” Principles of Distibuted Computing, 2003.
[9] A. Helmy, S. Garg, P. Pamu, and N. Nahata, “Contact Based Architecture for Resource Discovery (CARD) in Large Scale MANets,” Proc. Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS '03), Apr. 2003.
[10] T. Camp, J. Boleng, and L. Wilcox, “Location Information Services in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC'02), pp.3318-3324, 2002.
[11] J. Li, J. Jannotti, D. De Couto, D.R. Karger, and R. Morris, “A Scalable Location Service for Geographic Ad Hoc Routing,” Proc. MobiCom, 2000.
[12] P. Bose et al., “A Survey on Position-Based Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 15, no. 6, 2001.
[13] H. Dubois-Ferriere, M. Grossglauser, and M. Vetterli, “Age Matters: Efficient Route Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Encounter Ages,” Proc. MobiHoc, June 2003.
[14] Y.C. Hu, H. Pucha, and S.M. Das, “Exploiting the Synergy between Peer-to-Peer and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Ninth Workshop Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HotOS-IX), May 2003.
[15] A. Rao, S. Ratnasamy, C. Papadimitriou, S. Shenker, and I. Stoica, “Geographic Routing without Location Information,” Proc. MobiCom, 2003.
[16] J. Newsome and D. Song, “GEM: Graph Embedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks without Geographic Information,” Proc. First ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '03), pp. 76-88, 2003.
[17] J. Yoon, M. Liu, and B. Noble, “Random Waypoint Considered Harmful,” Proc. INFOCOM, 2003.
[18] D. De Couto, D. Aguayo, J. Bicket, and R. Morris, “A High-Throughput Path Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless Routing,” Proc. MobiCom, 2003.
[19] International Standard ISO/IEC 8802-11; ANSI/IEEE Std 802.11, IEEE, 1999.
[20] J. Linn, Generic Security Service Application Program Interface, IETF RFC 1508, Sept. 1993.
[21] A.S. Tanenbaum and M. van Steen, Distributed Systems: Principles and Paradigms. Prentice-Hall, 2001.
[22] J. Kleinberg, A. Slivkins, and T. Wexler, “Triangulation and Embedding Using Small Sets of Beacons,” Proc. 45th Ann. IEEE Symp. Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS '04), 2004.
[23] NS2 Network Simulator, http://www.isi.edu/nsnamns/, 2007.
[24] D. Ganesan, D. Estrin, and J. Heidemann, “DIMENSIONS: Why Do We Need a New Data Handling Architecture for Sensor Networks?” Proc. ACM Workshop Hot Topics in Networks, 2002.
[25] S. Shenker, S. Ratnasamy, B. Karp, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, “Data-Centric Storage in Sensornets,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 137-142, 2003.
[26] X. Li, Y. Kim, R. Govindan, and W. Hong, “Multi-Dimensional Range Queries in Sensor Networks,” Proc. First Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2003.
[27] D. Ganesan et al., “An Evaluation of Multi-Resolution Storage for Sensor Networks,” Proc. First Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2003.

Index Terms:
Mobile ad hoc networks, routing protocols, virtual coordinate
Citation:
Yao Zhao, Yan Chen, Bo Li, Qian Zhang, "Hop ID: A Virtual Coordinate-Based Routing for Sparse Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1075-1089, Sept. 2007, doi:10.1109/TMC.2007.1042
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.