This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
The Design and Evaluation of Unified Cellular and Ad Hoc Networks
September 2007 (vol. 6 no. 9)
pp. 1060-1074
In third-generation (3G) wireless data networks, providing service to low data-rate users is required for maintaining fairness, but at the cost of reducing the cell's aggregate throughput. In this paper, we propose the Unified Cellular and Ad-Hoc Network (UCAN) architecture for enhancing cell throughput, while maintaining fairness. In UCAN, a mobile client has both 3G interface and IEEE 802.11-based peer-to-peer links. The 3G base station forwards packets for destination clients with poor channel quality to proxy clients with better channel quality. The proxy clients then use an ad-hoc network composed of other mobile clients and IEEE 802.11 wireless links to forward the packets to the appropriate destinations, thereby improving cell throughput. We refine the 3G base station scheduling algorithm so that the throughput gains are distributed proportional to users' average channel rates, thereby maintaining fairness. With the UCAN architecture in place, we propose novel greedy and on-demand protocols for proxy discovery and ad-hoc routing that explicitly leverage the existence of the 3G infrastructure to reduce complexity and improve reliability. We further propose secure crediting mechanisms to motivate users that are not actively receiving to participate in relaying packets for others. Through both analysis and extensive simulations with HDR and IEEE 802.11b, we show that the UCAN architecture can increase individual user's throughput by more than 100% and the aggregate throughput of the HDR downlink by up to 50%.

[1] Yankee Group Corporate Wireless Survey, “3G Represents an Inflection Point for Enterprise Mobility,” http://www.3g.co.uk/PR/October20048504.htm , Oct. 2004.
[2] ChannelMinds.com, “Over 50% of Organisations Will Have WLAN Deployments by 2006,” http://www.channelminds.com article.php3?id_article=2412 , Nov. 2004.
[3] “GTRAN Dual-Mode 802.11/CDMA Wireless Modem,” http://www.gtranwireless.com/newseventspressreleases_{2}0020422. htm , Jan. 2003.
[4] “1xEV: 1x EVolution IS-856 TIA/EIA Standard—Airlink Overview,” QUALCOMM Inc., white paper, Nov. 2001.
[5] “802.11 HotSpot,” http:/www.80211hotspots.com, Jan. 2003.
[6] IEEE Standard 802.11b, Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Higher-Speed Physical Layer Extension in the 2.4GHz Band, IEEE CS, 1999.
[7] D.B Johnson and D.A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in AdHoc Wireless Networks,” Mobile Computing, vol. 353, pp. 153-181, 1996.
[8] C.E. Perkins and E.M. Royer, “Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (WMCSA '99), pp. 90-100, 1999.
[9] J. Broch, D.A. Maltz, D.B. Johnson, Y.-C. Hu, and J. Jetcheva, “A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols,” Proc. MobiCom, pp. 85-97, 1998.
[10] G.N. Aggelou and R. Tafazolli, “On the Relaying Capacity of Next-Generation GSM Cellular Networks,” IEEE Personal Comm. Magazine, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 40-47, Feb. 2001.
[11] T. Rouse, I. Band, and S. McLaughlin, “Capacity and Power Investigation of Opportunity Driven Multiple Access (ODMA) Networks in TDD-CDMA Based Systems,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '02), vol. 5, pp. 3202-3206, 2002.
[12] X. Wu, S.-H. Chan, and B. Mukherjee, “MADF: A Novel Approach to Add an Ad-Hoc Overlay on a Fixed Cellular Infrastructure,” Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC '00), vol. 2, pp. 549-554, 2000.
[13] I. Akyildiz, W. Yen, and B. Yener, “A New Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Dynamic Multihop Wireless Networks,” Proc. INFOCOM, vol. 3, pp. 1422-1429, 1997.
[14] H.-Y. Hsieh and R. Sivakumar, “On Using the Ad-Hoc Network Model in Wireless Packet Data Networks,” Proc. MobiHoc, pp. 36-47, 2002.
[15] Y.-D. Lin and Y.-C. Hsu, “Multihop Cellular: A New Architecture for Wireless Communications,” Proc. INFOCOM, vol. 3, pp. 1273-1282, 2000.
[16] H. Wu, C. Qiao, S. De, and O. Tonguz, “Integrated Cellular and Ad Hoc Relaying Systems: iCAR,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2105-2115, Oct. 2001.
[17] G.J. Foschini and M.J. Gans, “On Limits of Wireless Communications in a Fading Environment When Using Multiple Antennas,” Wireless Personal Comm., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 311-335, Mar. 1998.
[18] P. Bender, P. Black, M. Grob, R. Padovanni, N. Sindhushayana, and A. Viterbi, “CDMA/HDR: A Bandwidth-Efficient High-Speed Wireless Data Service for Nomadic Users,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 38, pp. 70-77, July 2000.
[19] D. Tse, “Multiuser Diversity in Wireless Networks: Smart Scheduling, Dumb Antennas and Epidemic Communication,” Proc. IMA Workshop Wireless Networks, 2001.
[20] T. Cover and J. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory. Wiley & Sons, 1991.
[21] V. Erceg, L.J. Greenstein, and S.Y. Tjandra, “An Empirically Based Path Loss Model for Wireless Channels in Suburban Environments,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1205-1212, July 1999.
[22] B. Sklar, “Rayleigh Fading Channels in Mobile Digital Communication Systems Part I: Characterization,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, pp. 90-100, July 1997.
[23] M.K. Simon and M.-S. Alouini, “A Unified Approach to the Performance Analysis of Digital Communication over Generalized Fading Channels,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1860-1877, Sept. 1998.
[24] L. Buttyan and J.P. Hubaux, “Stimulating Cooperation in Self-Organizing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” ACM/Kluwer Mobile Networks and Applications J. (MONET), vol. 8, no. 5, Oct. 2003.
[25] N.B. Salem, L. Buttyan, J.P. Hubaux, and M. Jakobsson, “A Charging and Rewarding Scheme for Packet Forwarding in Multi-hop Cellular Networks,” Proc. MobiHoc, pp. 13-24, 2003.
[26] W.C. Jakes, Microwave Mobile Communication. Wiley, 1974.
[27] T.S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall, 1996.

Index Terms:
Wireless, Algorithm/protocol design and analysis, Mobile communication systems
Citation:
Haiyun Luo, Xiaqiao Meng, Ram Ramjee, Prasun Sinha, Li (Erran) Li, "The Design and Evaluation of Unified Cellular and Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1060-1074, Sept. 2007, doi:10.1109/TMC.2007.1035
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.