This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Inner-Circle Consistency for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
January 2007 (vol. 6 no. 1)
pp. 39-55
This paper proposes and evaluates strategies to build reliable and secure wireless ad hoc networks. Our contribution is based on the notion of inner-circle consistency, where local node interaction is used to neutralize errors/attacks at the source, both preventing errors/attacks from propagating in the network and improving the fidelity of the propagated information. We achieve this goal by combining statistical (a proposed fault-tolerant cluster algorithm) and security (threshold cryptography) techniques with application-aware checks to exploit the data/computation that is partially and naturally replicated in wireless applications. We have prototyped an inner-circle framework and used it to demonstrate the idea of inner-circle consistency in two significant wireless scenarios: 1) the neutralization of black hole attacks in AODV networks and 2) the neutralization of sensor errors in a target detection/localization application executed over a wireless sensor network.

[1] C. Basile, M.-O. Killijian, and D. Powell, “A Survey of Dependability Issues in Mobile Wireless Networks,” technical report, LAAS-CNRS, Toulouse, 2003.
[2] C.E. Perkins, E.M. Belding-Royer, and I. Chakeres, “Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing,” IETF Internet Draft, technical report, 2003.
[3] G.P. Saggese, C. Basile, L. Romano, Z. Kalbarczyk, and R. Iyer, “Hardware Support for High-Performance, Intrusion- and Fault-Tolerant Systems,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS '04), 2004.
[4] The Network Simulator—ns-2, index.php, 2006.
[5] W. Wang and B. Bhargava, “On Vulnerability and Protection of Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Prototol,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Telecomm., 2003.
[6] S. Ramaswamy, H. Fu, and M. Sreekantaradhya, “Prevention of Cooperative Black Hole Attack in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Wireless Networks, 2003.
[7] R. Szewczyk, J. Polastre, A. Mainwaring, and D. Culler, “Lessons from a Sensor Network Expedition,” Proc. European Workshop Wireless Sensor Networks, 2004.
[8] C. Savarese, J. Rabay, and K. Langendoen, “Robust Positioning Algorithms for Distributed Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. USENIX Technical Conf., 2002.
[9] V. Shoup, “Practical Threshold Signatures,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1807, pp.207-218, 2000.
[10] A. Herzberg, S. Jarecki, H. Krawczyk, and M. Yung, “Proactive Secret Sharing or: How to Cope with Perpetual Leakage,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 963, 1995.
[11] F. Cristian and C. Fetzer, “The Timed Asynchronous Distributed System Model,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 10, no. 6, June 1999.
[12] J. Douceur, “The Sybil Attack,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '02), 2002.
[13] L. Lamport, R. Shostak, and M. Pease, “The Byzantine Generals Problem,” ACM Trans. Programming Languages and Systems, vol. 4, no. 3, 1982.
[14] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, “Directed Diffusion: A Scalable and Robust Communication Paradigm for Sensor Networks,” Proc. MobiCom, 2000.
[15] R. Cunningham and V. Cahill, “Time Bounded Medium Access Control for Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Principles of Mobile Computing (POMC '02), 2002.
[16] M.T. Sun, L. Huang, A. Arora, and T.H. Lai, “MAC Layer Multicast in IEEE Wireless Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing (ICPP '02), 2002.
[17] B. Barak, S. Halevi, A. Herzberg, and D. Naor, “Clock Synchronization with Faults and Recoveries,” Proc. Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing, 2000.
[18] D. Dolev et al. “Reaching Approximate Agreement in the Presence of Faults,” J. ACM, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 499-516, 1986.
[19] T. Clouqueur, K.K. Saluja, and P. Ramanathan, “Fault Tolerance in Collaborative Sensor Networks for Target Detection,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 320-333, Mar. 2004.
[20] L. Lamport and P.M. Melliar-Smith, “Synchronizing Clocks in the Presence of Faults,” J. ACM, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 52-78, 1985.
[21] M.H. Azadmanesh and R.M. Kieckhafer, “New Hybrid Fault Models for Asynchronous Approximate Agreement,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 439-449, Apr. 1996.
[22] L. Kleinrock and J. Silvester, “Optimum Transmission Radii for Packet Radio Networks or Why Six Is a Magic Number,” Proc. IEEE Nat'l Telecomm. Conf., 1978.
[23] “Jouletrack,”, 2005.
[24] H. Deng, W. Li, and D.P. Agrawal, “Routing Security in Wireless Ad Hoc Network,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, 2002.
[25] C. Basile, Z. Kalbarczyk, and R. Iyer, “Neutralization of Error and Attacks in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” technical report, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2005.
[26] T. Hara, “Effective Replica Allocation in Ad Hoc Networks for Improving Data Accessibility,” Proc. INFOCOM, pp. 1568-1576, 2001.
[27] Q. Huang, C. Julien, G. Roman, and A. Hazemi, “Relying on Safe Distance to Ensure Consistent Group Membership in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Consumer Electronics, 2001.
[28] R. Prakash and M. Singhal, “Low-Cost Checkpointing and Failure Recovery in Mobile Computing Systems,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1035-1048, Oct. 1996.
[29] J. Luo, J.-P. Hubaux, and P. Eugster, “Pan: Providing Reliable Storage in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Probabilistic Quorum Systems,” Proc. MobiHoc, pp. 1-12, 2003.
[30] N. Asokan and P. Ginzboorg, “Key-Agreement in Ad-Hoc Networks,” Computer Comm., vol. 23, no. 17, pp. 1627-1637, 2000,
[31] H. Luo, P. Zefros, J. Kong, S. Lu, and L. Zhang, “Self-Securing AdHoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Computers and Comm., 2002.
[32] W. Du et al., “A Key Management Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Deployment Knowledge,” Proc. INFOCOM, 2004.
[33] S. Ghazizadeh, O. Ilghami, E. Sirin, and F. Yaman, “Security-Aware Adaptive Dynamic Source Routing Protocol,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks, 2002.
[34] M.G. Zapata, “Secure Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (SAODV) Routing,” Internet Draft draft-guerrero-manetsaodv-00. txt, 2002.
[35] S. Marti, T.J. Giuli, K. Lai, and M. Baker, “Mitigating Routing Misbehavior in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 255-265, 2000.
[36] X.M.H. Yang and S. Lu, “Self-Organized Network Layer Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. MobiCom, 2002.
[37] L. Buttyan and J. Hubaux, “Enforcing Service Availability in Mobile Ad-Hoc Wans,” Proc. Workshop Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, 2000.
[38] L. Zhou et al., “Coca: A Secure Distributed Online Certification Authority,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 20, no. 4, 2002.
[39] MAFTIA Project, /, 2003.

Index Terms:
Intrusion tolerance, ad hoc networks, sensor networks, security, reliability.
Claudio Basile, Zbigniew Kalbarczyk, Ravishankar K. Iyer, "Inner-Circle Consistency for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 39-55, Jan. 2007, doi:10.1109/TMC.2007.8
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.