This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Energy and Spatial Reuse Efficient Network-Wide Real-Time Data Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
October 2006 (vol. 5 no. 10)
pp. 1297-1312
In this paper, we present NB-TRACE, which is an energy-efficient network-wide voice broadcasting architecture for mobile ad hoc networks. In the NB-TRACE architecture, the network is organized into overlapping clusters through a distributed algorithm, where the clusterheads create a nonconnected dominating set. Channel access is regulated through a distributed TDMA scheme maintained by the clusterheads. The first group of packets of a broadcast session is broadcast through flooding, where each data rebroadcast is preceded by an acknowledgment to the upstream node. Nodes that do not get an acknowledgment for a predetermined time, except the clusterheads, cease to rebroadcast, which prunes the redundant retransmissions. The connected dominating set formed through this basic algorithm is broken in time due to node mobility. The network responds to the broken links through multiple mechanisms to ensure the maintenance of the connected dominating set. We compare NB-TRACE with four network layer broadcast routing algorithms (Flooding, Gossiping, Counter-based broadcasting, and Distance-based broadcasting) and three medium access control protocols (IEEE 802.11, SMAC, and MH-TRACE) through extensive ns-2 simulations. Our results show that NB-TRACE outperforms other network/MAC layer combinations in minimizing energy dissipation and optimizing spatial reuse, while producing competitive QoS performance.

[1] P. Mohapatra, J. Li, and C. Gui, “QoS in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Wireless Comm. Magazine, vol. 10, pp. 44-52, 2003.
[2] W.B. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “An Application Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 1, pp. 660-670, 2002.
[3] B. Williams, “Network Wide Broadcasting Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” MSc dissertation, Colorado School of Mines, 2002.
[4] J. Kotwicki, “An Analysis of Energy Efficient Voice over IP Communications in Wireless Networks,” MSc dissertation, Case Western Reserve Univ., 2004.
[5] W. Ye, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “Medium Access Control with Coordinated Adaptive Sleeping for Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 12, pp. 493-506, 2004.
[6] C.E. Jones, K.M. Sivalingam, P. Agrawal, and J.C. Chen, “A Survey of Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless Networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 7, pp. 443-458, 2001.
[7] C.R. Lin and M. Gerla, “Adaptive Clustering for Mobile Wireless Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 15, pp. 1265-1275, 1997.
[8] C. Zhu and M.S. Corson, “A Five Phase Reservation Protocol (FPRP) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 7, pp. 371-384, 2001.
[9] B. Tavli and W.B. Heinzelman, “MH-TRACE: Multi-Hop Time Reservation Using Adaptive Control for Energy Efficiency,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 22, pp. 942-953, 2004.
[10] B. Tavli and W.B. Heinzelman, “TRACE: Time Reservation Using Adaptive Control for Energy Efficiency,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 21, pp. 1506-1515, 2003.
[11] J.-P. Ebert, S. Aier, G. Kofahl, A. Becker, B. Burns, and A. Wolisz, “Measurement and Simulation of the Energy Consumption of an WLAN Interface,” Technical Report TKN-02-010, Telecomm. Network Group, Technical Univ. of Berlin, 2002.
[12] J.G. Dorsey and D.P. Siewiorek, “Online Power Monitoring for Wearable Systems,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers, 2002.
[13] L.M. Feeney, “An Asynchronous Power Save Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Technical Report SICS-T-2002/9-SE, Swedish Inst. of Computer Science, 2002.
[14] J. Kulik, W.B. Heinzelman, and H. Balakrishnan, “Negotiation-Based Protocols for Disseminating Information in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 8, pp. 169-185, 2002.
[15] S. Singh and C.S. Raghavendra, “PAMAS: Power Aware Multi-Access Protocol with Signaling for Ad Hoc Networks,” ACM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 28, pp. 5-26, 1998.
[16] V. Rodoplu and T. Meng, “Minimum Energy Mobile Wireless Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 17, pp. 1333-1344, 1999.
[17] B. O'Hara and A. Petrick, The IEEE 802.11 Handbook: A Designer's Companion. IEEE Press, 1999.
[18] IEEE 802.15.3 Draft P802.15.3/D17-pre, Feb. 2003.
[19] W. Ye and J. Heidemann, “Medium Access Control in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Technical Report ISI-TR-580, Information Sciences Inst., Univ. of Southern California, 2003.
[20] R. Gandhi, S. Parthasarathy, and A. Mishra, “Minimizing Broadcast Latency and Redundancy in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MOBIHOC, pp. 222-232, 2003.
[21] F. Li and I. Nikolaidis, “On Minimum-Energy Broadcasting in All-Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks, pp. 193-202, 2001.
[22] A.E.F. Clementi, P. Crescenzi, P. Penna, G. Rossi, and P. Vocca, “On the Complexity of Computing Minimum Energy Consumption Broadcast Subgraphs,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2010, pp. 121-131, 2001.
[23] M. Cagalj, J.P. Hubaux, and C. Enz, “Minimum-Energy Broadcast in All-Wireless Networks: NP-Completeness and Distribution Issues,” Proc. ACM MOBICOM, pp. 172-182, 2002.
[24] D. Li, X. Jia, and H. Liu, “Energy Efficient Broadcast Routing in Static Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 3, pp. 144-151, 2004.
[25] P. Chen, B. O'Dea, and E. Callaway, “Energy Efficient System Design with Optimum Transmission Range for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm., vol. 2, pp. 945-952, 2002.
[26] Y.-C. Tseng, S.-Y. Ni, Y.-S. Chen, and J.-P. Sheu, “The Broadcast Storm Problem in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network,” Wireless Networks, vol. 8, pp. 153-167, 2002.
[27] S. Guha and S. Khuller, “Approximation Algorithms for Connected Dominating Sets,” Algorithmica, vol. 20, pp. 374-387, 1998.
[28] J.S. Han, S.J. Ahn, and J.W. Chung, “Study of Delay Patterns of Weighted Voice Traffic of End-to-End Users on the VoIP Network,” Int'l J. Network Management, vol. 12, pp. 271-280, 2002.
[29] J. Janssen, D.D. Vleeschauwer, G.H. Petit, R. Windey, and J.M. Leroy, “Delay Bounds for Voice over IP Calls Transported over Satellite Access Links,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 7, pp. 79-89, 2002.
[30] D.A. Maltz, J. Broch, and D.B. Johnson, “Lessons from a Full-Scale Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Testbed,” IEEE Personal Comm. Magazine, vol. 8, pp. 8-15, 2001.
[31] D.B. Clark, S. Shenker, and L. Zhang, “Supporting Real-Time Applications in an Integrated Services Packet Network: Architecture and Mechanism,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 14-26, 1992.
[32] Z. Yao, P. Fan, Z. Cao, and V.O.K. Li, “Cross Layer Design for Service Differentiation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, ” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Comm., pp. 778-782, 2003.
[33] D.J. Goodman and S.W. Wei, “Efficiency of Packet Reservation Multiple Access,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 40, pp. 170-176, 1991.
[34] C.R. Dow, J.H. Lin, A.F. Hwang, and Y.W. Wang, “An Efficient Distributed Clustering Scheme for Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks,” IEICE Trans. Comm., vol. E85-B, pp. 1561-1571, 2002.
[35] C. Eklund, R.B. Marks, K.L. Stanwood, and S. Wang, “IEEE Standard 802.16: A Technical Overview of the WirelessMAN Air Interface for Broadband Wireless Access,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 40, pp. 98-107, 2002.
[36] F. van Diggelen, “Indoor GPS Theory and Implementation,” Proc. IEEE Position, Location, and Navigation Symp., pp. 240-247, 2002.
[37] L. Huang and T.-H. Lai, “On the Scalability of IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MOBIHOC, pp. 173-182, 2002.
[38] B. Tavli and W.B. Heinzelman, “PN-TRACE: Plain Network-Wide Broadcasting through Time Reservation Using Adaptive Control for Energy Efficiency,” Proc. IEEE MILCOM, 2004.
[39] J. Yoon, M. Liu, and B. Noble, “Sound Mobility Models,” Proc. ACM MOBICOM, pp. 205-216, 2003.
[40] C. Bettstetter, G. Resta, and P. Santi, “The Node Distribution of the Random Waypoint Mobility Model for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 2, pp. 257-269, 2003.
[41] T. Numanoglu, B. Tavli, and W.B. Heinzelman, “The Effects of Channel Errors on Coordinated and Non-Coordinated Medium Access Control Protocols,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Comm., vol. 1, pp. 58-65, 2005.

Index Terms:
Low-power design, energy-aware systems, data communications, distributed protocols, network communications, network topology, wireless communication, network protocols, protocol architecture, protocol verification, routing protocols, access schemes, mobile computing, algorithm/protocol design and analysis, mobile communication systems.
Citation:
Bulent Tavli, Wendi B. Heinzelman, "Energy and Spatial Reuse Efficient Network-Wide Real-Time Data Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 1297-1312, Oct. 2006, doi:10.1109/TMC.2006.151
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.