This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Virtual Backbone Construction in MANETs Using Adjustable Transmission Ranges
September 2006 (vol. 5 no. 9)
pp. 1188-1200
Jie Wu, IEEE
Fai Dai, IEEE
Recently, the use of a virtual backbone in various applications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) has become popular. These applications include topology management, point and area coverage, and routing protocol design. In a MANET, one challenging issue is to construct a virtual backbone in a distributed and localized way while balancing several conflicting objectives: small approximation ratio, fast convergence, and low computation cost. Many existing distributed and localized algorithms select a virtual backbone without resorting to global or geographical information. However, these algorithms incur a high computation cost in a dense network. In this paper, we propose a distributed solution based on reducing the density of the network using two mechanisms: clustering and adjustable transmission range. By using adjustable transmission range, we also achieve another objective, energy-efficient design, as a by-product. As an application, we show an efficient broadcast scheme where nodes (and only nodes) in a virtual backbone are used to forward the broadcast message. The virtual backbone is constructed using Wu and Li's marking process [37] and the proposed density reduction process. The application of the density reduction process to other localized algorithms is also discussed. The efficiency of our approach is confirmed through both analytical and simulation study.

[1] C. Adjih, P. Jacquet, and L. Viennot, “Computing Connected Dominated Sets with Multipoint Relays,” Technical Report 4597, INRIA-Rapport de Recherche, Oct. 2002.
[2] K. Alzoubi, X.Y. Li, Y. Wang, P.J. Wan, and O. Frieder, “Geometric Spanners for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 408-421, 2003.
[3] K.M. Alzoubi, P.J. Wan, and O. Frieder, “Message-Optimal Connected Dominating Sets in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. MobiHoc, pp. 157-164, June 2002.
[4] K.M. Alzoubi, P.J. Wan, and O. Frieder, “New Distributed Algorithm for Connected Dominating Set in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, p. 297, Jan. 2002.
[5] D. Blough, M. Leoncini, G. Resta, and P. Santi, “The K-Neigh Protocol for Symmetric Topology Control in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. MobiHoc, pp. 141-152, June 2003.
[6] M. Burkhard, P. Rickenbach, R. Wattenhofer, and A. Zollinger, “Does Topology Control Reduce Interference?” Proc. MobiHoc, 2004.
[7] J. Cartigny, D. Simplot, and I. Stojmenovic, “Localized Minimum-Energy Broadcasting in Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. Infocom, pp. 2210-2217, 2003.
[8] B. Chen, K. Jamieson, H. Balakrishnan, and R. Morris, “SPAN: An Energy-Efficient Coordination Algorithm for Topology Maintenance in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” ACM Wireless Networks J., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 481-494, 2002.
[9] A. Clementi, P. Crescenzi, P. Penna, G. Rossi, and P. Vocca, “On the Complexity of Computing Minimum Energy Consumption Broadcast Subgraphs,” Proc. Symp. Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, 2001.
[10] F. Dai and J. Wu, “Distributed Dominant Pruning in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm., vol. 1, pp. 353-357, May 2003.
[11] D. Dubhashi, A. Mei, A. Panconesi, J. Radhakrishnan, and A. Srinivasan, “Fast Distributed Algorithms for (Weakly) Connected Dominating Sets and Linear-Size Skeletons,” Proc. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms, pp. 717-724, Jan. 2003.
[12] L.M. Feeney, “An Energy-Consumption Model for Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 239-249, June 2001.
[13] J. Gao, L.J. Guibas, J. Hershberger, L. Zhang, and A. Zhu, “Discrete Mobile Centers,” Proc. Symp. Computational Geometry, pp. 188-196, 2001.
[14] S. Guha and S. Khuller, “Approximation Algorithms for Connected Dominating Sets,” Algorithmica, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 374-387, Apr. 1998.
[15] L. Jia, R. Rajaraman, and T. Suel, “An Efficient Distributed Algorithm for Constructing Small Dominating Sets,” Proc. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 33-42, Aug. 2001.
[16] F. Kuhn, T. Moscibroda, and R. Wattenhofer, “Initializing Newly Deployed Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks,” Proc. MobiCom, pp. 260-274, Sept./Oct. 2004.
[17] F. Kuhn, T. Moscibroda, and R. Wattenhofer, “What Cannot Be Computed Locally!” Proc. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing, July 2004.
[18] F. Kuhn and R. Wattenhofer, “Constant-Time Distributed Dominating Set Approximation,” Proc. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing, 2003.
[19] L. Li, J.Y. Halpern, V. Bahl, Y.M. Wang, and R. Wattenhofer, “Analysis of a Cone-Based Distributed Topology Control Algorithm for Wireless Multi-Hop Networks,” Proc. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 264-273, Aug. 2001.
[20] N. Li, J.C. Hou, and L. Sha, “Design and Analysis of an MST-Based Topology Control Algorithm,” Proc. Infocom, vol. 3, pp. 1702-1712, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[21] X.Y. Li, Y. Wang, P.J. Wan, W.Z. Song, and O. Frieder, “Localized Low-Weight Graph and Its Application in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Infocom, 2004.
[22] H. Lim and C. Kim, “Flooding in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Computer Comm. J., vol. 24, nos. 3-4, pp. 353-363, 2001.
[23] C.R. Lin and M. Gerla, “Adaptive Clustering for Mobile Wireless Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1265-1275, 1996.
[24] W. Lou and J. Wu, “On Reducing Broadcast Redundancy in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 111-122, Apr.-June 2002.
[25] W. Peng and X. Lu, “On the Reduction of Broadcast Redundancy in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. MobiHoc, pp. 129-130, June 2000.
[26] A. Qayyum, L. Viennot, and A. Laouiti, “Multipoint Relaying for Flooding Broadcast Message in Mobile Wireless Networks,” Proc. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, p. 298, Jan. 2002.
[27] V. Rodoplu and T.H. Meng, “Minimum Energy Mobile Wireless Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1333-1344, Aug. 1999.
[28] P. Sinha, R. Sivakumar, and V. Bharghavan, “Enhancing Ad Hoc Routing with Dynamic Virtual Infrastructures,” Proc. Infocom, pp. 1763-1772, Apr. 2001.
[29] I. Stojmenovic, S. Seddigh, and J. Zunic, “Dominating Sets and Neighbor Elimination Based Broadcasting Algorithms in Wireless Networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 14-25, Jan. 2002.
[30] J. Sucec and I. Marsic, “An Efficient Distributed Network-Wide Broadcast Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” CAIP Technical Report 248, Rutgers Univ., Sept. 2000.
[31] Y.C. Tseng, S.Y. Ni, Y.S. Chen, and J.P. Sheu, “The Broadcast Storm Problem in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network,” Wireless Networks, vol. 8, nos. 2-3, pp. 153-167, Mar.-May 2002.
[32] P.J. Wan, G. Calinescu, X.Y. Li, and O. Frieder, “Minimum-Energy Broadcast Routing in Static Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” ACM Wireless Networks, 2002.
[33] P.J. Wan and C.W. Yi, “Asympotic Critical Transmission Radius and Critical Neighbor Number for $k{\hbox{-}}{\rm Connectivity}$ in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. MobiHoc, May 2004.
[34] W.Z. Song, Y. Wang, X.Y. Li, and O. Frieder, “Localized Algorithms for Energy Efficient Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. MobiHoc, 2004.
[35] J.E. Wieselthier, G.D. Nguyen, and A. Ephremides, “On Constructing Minimum Spanning Trees in $k{\hbox{-}}{\rm Dimensional}$ Spaces and Related Problems,” Proc. Infocom, pp. 585-594, 2000.
[36] J. Wu and F. Dai, “A Generic Distributed Broadcast Scheme in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 460-468, May 2003.
[37] J. Wu and H. Li, “On Calculating Connected Dominating Set for Efficient Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Comm., pp. 7-14, 1999.
[38] J. Wu and W. Lou, “Forward-Node-Set-Based Broadcast in Clustered Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing, special issue on algorithmic, geometric, graph, combinatorial, and vector, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 155-173, 2003.

Index Terms:
Adjustable transmission range, broadcasting, clustering, connected dominating set (CDS), energy efficiency, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs).
Citation:
Jie Wu, Fai Dai, "Virtual Backbone Construction in MANETs Using Adjustable Transmission Ranges," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 1188-1200, Sept. 2006, doi:10.1109/TMC.2006.140
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.