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ICAM: Integrated Cellular and Ad Hoc Multicast
August 2006 (vol. 5 no. 8)
pp. 1004-1015
In third generation (3G) wireless data networks, multicast throughput decreases with the increase in multicast group size, since a conservative strategy for the base station is to use the lowest data rate of all the receivers so that the receiver with the worst downlink channel condition can decode the transmission correctly. This paper proposes ICAM, Integrated Cellular and Ad hoc Multicast, to increase 3G multicast throughput through opportunistic use of ad hoc relays. In ICAM, a 3G base station delivers packets to proxy mobile devices with better 3G channel quality. The proxy then forwards the packets to the receivers through an IEEE 802.11-based ad hoc network. In this paper, we first propose a localized greedy algorithm that discovers for each multicast receiver the proxy with the highest 3G downlink channel rate. We discover that due to capacity limitations and interference of the ad hoc relay network, maximizing the 3G downlink data rate of each multicast receiver's proxy does not lead to maximum throughput for the multicast group. We then show that the optimal ICAM problem is NP-hard, and derive a polynomial-time 4{\hbox{-}}\rm approximation algorithm for the construction of the multicast forest. This bound holds when the underlying wireless MAC supports broadcast or unicast, single rate or multiple rates (4(1+\epsilon) approximation scheme for the latter), and even when there are multiple simultaneous multicast sessions. Through both analysis and simulations, we show that our algorithms achieve throughput gains up to 840 percent for 3G downlink multicast with modest overhead on the 3G uplink.

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Index Terms:
Ad hoc networks, cellular networks, multicast, network architecture, routing.
Randeep Bhatia, Li (Erran) Li, Haiyun Luo, Ram Ramjee, "ICAM: Integrated Cellular and Ad Hoc Multicast," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1004-1015, Aug. 2006, doi:10.1109/TMC.2006.116
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