This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Optimal Design of Hybrid FEC/ARQ Schemes for TCP over Wireless Links with Rayleigh Fading
April 2006 (vol. 5 no. 4)
pp. 289-302
In this paper, we investigate interactions between TCP and wireless hybrid FEC/ARQ schemes. The aim is to understand what is the best configuration of the wireless link protocol in order to guarantee TCP performance and channel efficiency. Interactions between TCP and different link layer mechanisms are evaluated by means of an analytic model that reproduces: 1) a Rayleigh fading channel with FEC coding, 2) a generic selective repeat ARQ Protocol, and 3) the TCP behavior in a wired-cum-wireless network scenario. The analytic model is validated by means of ns-based simulations. The analysis represents a contribution to the optimal design of link layer parameters of wireless networks crossed by TCP/IP traffic. The main findings can be summarized as follows: 1) fully reliable ARQ protocols are the best choice for both TCP performance and wireless link efficiency and 2) optimal values of FEC redundancy degree from the point of view of energy efficiency maximizes TCP performance as well.

[1] N. Brownlee and K.C. Claffy, “Understanding Internet Traffic Streams: Dragonflies and Tortoises,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, Oct. 2002.
[2] G. Xylomenos, G.C. Polyzos, and P. Mahonen, “TCP Performance Issues over Wireless Links,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, Apr. 2001.
[3] C. Barakat, E. Altman, and W. Dabbous, “On TCP Performance in a Heterogeneous Network: A Survey,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, Jan. 2000.
[4] C. Barakat and E. Altman, “Bandwidth Tradeoff between TCP and Link-Level FEC,” Computer Networks, June 2002.
[5] B. Liu, D.L. Goeckel, and D. Towsley, “TCP-Cognizant Adaptive Forward Error Correction in Wireless Networks,” technical report, Computer Science Dept., Univ. of Massachusettes, Aug. 2001, .
[6] L. Galluccio, G. Morabito, and S. Palazzo, “An Analytical Study of a Tradeoff between Transmission Power and FEC for TCP Optimization in Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE Infocom Conf., 2003.
[7] H. Balakrishnan, S. Seshan, and R.H. Katz, “Improving Reliable Transport and Handoff Performance in Cellular Wireless Networks,” Wireless Networks, Dec. 1995.
[8] A. DeSimone, M.C. Chuah, and O.C. Yue, “Throughput Performance of Transport-Layer Protocols over Wireless LANs,” Proc. IEEE Globecom Conf., 1993.
[9] H.M. Chaskar, T.V. Lakshman, and U. Madhow, “TCP over Wireless with Link Level Error Control: Analysis and Design Methodology,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 7, no. 5, Oct. 1999.
[10] R. Ludwig, “A Case for Flow-Adaptive Wireless Links,” Technical Report UCB/CSD-99-1053, Univ. of California at Berkeley, May 1999.
[11] R. Ludwig and R.H. Katz, “The Eifel Algorithm: Making TCP Robust against Spurious Retransmissions,” ACM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 30, no. 1, Jan. 2000.
[12] M. Methfessel, K. Dombrowski, P. Langendörfer, H. Frankenfeldt, I. Babanskaja, I. Matthaei, and R. Kraemer, “Vertical Optimization of Data Transmission for Mobile Wireless Terminals,” IEEE Wireless Comm. Magazine, Dec. 2002.
[13] F. Vacirca, A. DeVendictis, and A. Baiocchi, “Investigating Interactions between ARQ Mechanisms and TCP over Wireless Links,” Proc. European Wireless Conf., Feb. 2004.
[14] C.F. Chiasserini and M. Meo, “A Reconfigurable Protocol Setting to Improve TCP over Wireless,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, 2002.
[15] A. Chockalingam, M. Zorzi, V. Tralli, “Wireless TCP Performance with Link Layer FEC/ARQ,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Comm., 1999.
[16] C. Barakat and A. Al Fawal, “Analysis of Link-Level Hybrid FEC/ARQ-SR for Wireless Links and Long-Lived TCP traffic,” INRIA technical report, Feb. 2003.
[17] D. Barman, I. Matta, E. Altman, and R. ElAzouzi, “TCP Optimization through FEC, ARQ and Transmission Power Tradeoffs,” Proc. Conf. Wired/Wireless Internet Comm., Feb. 2004.
[18] R.W. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, volume I The Protocols. Addison-Wesley, 1994.
[19] V. Paxson, “End-to-End Internet Packet Dynamics,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 7, no. 3, June 1999.
[20] A. DeVendictis and A. Baiocchi, “Wavelet Based Synthetic Generation of Internet Packet Delays,” Proc. Internet Technical Committee Conf., Dec. 2001.
[21] E.N. Gilbert, “Capacity of Burst Noise Channels,” The Bell System Technical J., vol. 39, pp. 1253-1256, 1960.
[22] M. Zorzi, R.R. Rao, and L.B. Milstein, “On the Accuracy of a First-order Markov Model for Data Transmission on Fading Channels,” Proc. IEEE Universal Personal Comm., Nov. 1995.
[23] W.C. Jakes, Microwave Mobile Communications. John Wiley and Sons, 1974.
[24] J.G. Proakis, Digital Communications, fourth ed. McGraw-Hill, 2001.
[25] M. Patzold, U. Killat, and F. Laue, “A Deterministic Digital Simulation Model for Suzuki Processes with Application to a Shadowed Rayleigh Land Mobile Radio Channel,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 45, no. 2, May 1996.
[26] M. Allman and A. Falk, “On the Effective Evaluation of TCP,” ACM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 29, no. 5, Oct. 1999.
[27] C. Casetti and M. Meo, “A New Approach to Model the Stationary Behavior of TCP Connections,” Proc. IEEE Infocom Conf., Mar. 2000.
[28] J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, and D. Towsley, “A Stochastic Model of TCP Reno Congestion Avoidance and Control,” CMPSCI Technical Report, Jan. 1999.
[29] F. Vacirca, A. DeVendictis, A. Todini, and A. Baiocchi, “On the Effects of ARQ Mechanisms on TCP Performance in Wireless Environments,” Proc. IEEE Globecom 2003 Conf., Dec. 2003.
[30] ns-LBL network simulator ns-2. 1b9a, documentation and software available via, 2006.
[31] A. Todini and F. Vacirca, “UMTS Module for ns,” http:/net., 2006.
[32] TS25.322, Radio Link Control (RLC) Protocol Specification, Release 5 v5.1.0, June 2002.
[33] J. Padhye et. al, “Modeling TCP Reno Throughput: A Simple Model and Its Empirical Validation,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 2, Apr. 2000.

Index Terms:
Wireless communication, TCP modeling, hybrid ARQ.
Francesco Vacirca, Andrea De Vendictis, Andrea Baiocchi, "Optimal Design of Hybrid FEC/ARQ Schemes for TCP over Wireless Links with Rayleigh Fading," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 289-302, April 2006, doi:10.1109/TMC.2006.51
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.