This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Exploring Mesh and Tree-Based Multicast Routing Protocols for MANETs
January 2006 (vol. 5 no. 1)
pp. 28-42
Recently, it became apparent that group-oriented services are one of the primary application classes targeted by MANETs. As a result, several MANET-specific multicast routing protocols have been proposed. Although these protocols perform well under specific mobility scenarios, traffic loads, and network conditions, no single protocol has been shown to be optimal in all scenarios. The goal of this paper is to characterize the performance of multicast protocols over a wide range of MANET scenarios. To this end, we evaluate the performance of mesh and tree-based multicast routing schemes relative to flooding and recommend protocols most suitable for specific MANET scenarios. Based on the analysis and simulation results, we also propose two variations of flooding, scoped flooding and hyper flooding, as a means to reduce overhead and increase reliability, respectively. Another contribution of the paper is a simulation-based comparative study of the proposed flooding variations against plain flooding, mesh, and tree-based MANET routing. In our simulations, in addition to "synthetic” scenarios, we also used more realistic MANET settings, such as conferencing and emergency response.

[1] S. Basagni, I. Chlamtac, V.R. Syrotiuk, and B.A. Woodward, “A Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (Dream),” Proc. IEEE/ACM MOBICOM '98 Conf., pp. 76-84, Oct. 1998.
[2] E. Bommaiah, M. Liu, A. McAuley, and R. Talpade, “AMRoute: Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol,” IETF manet, draft-talpade-manet-amroute-00.txt, Aug. 1998.
[3] J. Broch, D.A. Maltz, D.B. Johnson, Y.C Hu, and J. Jetcheva, “A Performance Comparison of Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols,” Proc. ACM/IEEE MOBICOM '98 Conf., pp. 85-97, 1998.
[4] CMU Monarch Project, Mobility Extensions to ns-2, 1999, http:/www.monarch.cs.cmu.edu/.
[5] S.R. Das, R. Castaneda, J. Yan, and R. Sengupta, “Comparative Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols for Mobile, Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Seventh Int'l Conf. Computer Comm. and Networks, pp. 153-161, 1998.
[6] J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves and E. Madruga, “A Multicast Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. INFOCOM '99 Conf., pp. 784-792, Mar. 1999.
[7] M. Gerla and S.J. Lee, “On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” http://www.cs.ucla.edu/NRLwireless/, 2005.
[8] P. Jacquet, P. Minet, A. Laouiti, L. Viennot, T. Clausen, and C. Adjih, “Multicast Optimized Link State Routing,” IETF manet, draft-ietf-manet-olsr-molsr-01.txt, 2002.
[9] M. Joa-ng and L.T. Lu, “A Peer-to-Peer Zone Based Two-Level Link State Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1415-1425, Aug. 1999.
[10] P. Johansson, T. Larsson, N. Hedman, B. Mielczarek, and M. Degermark, “Scenario-Based Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE/ACM MOBICOM '99 Conf., pp. 195-206, 1999.
[11] Y.B. Ko and N.H. Vaidya, “Location-Aided Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE/ACM MOBICOM '98 Conf., pp. 66-75, 1998.
[12] T. Kunz and E. Cheng, “Multicasting in Ad Hoc Networks: Comparing MAODV and ODMRP,” Proc. Workshop Ad Hoc Comm., Sept. 2001.
[13] S.J. Lee, M. Gerla, and C.K. Toh, “A Simulation Study of Table-Driven and On-Demand Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 48-54, 1999.
[14] S.J. Lee, W. Su, J. Hsu, M. Gerla, and R. Bagrodia, “A Performance Comparison Study of Ad Hoc Wireless Multicast Protocols,” Proc. IEEE Infocom 2000 Conf., Mar. 2000.
[15] S. Ni, Y. Tseng, Y. Chen, and J. Sheu, “The Broadcast Storm Problem in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network,” Proc. IEEE/ACM MOBICOM '99 Conf., pp. 151-162, 1999.
[16] K. Obraczka, G. Tsudik, and K. Viswanath, “Pushing the Limits of Multicast in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. 21st Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 719-722, Apr. 2001.
[17] M.R. Pearlman and Z.J. Haas, “Determining the Optimal Config. Ation for the Zone Routing Protocol,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1395-1414, Aug. 1999.
[18] L. Quiming, “Scenario Generator for Manets,” available from http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~liqiming/fyp/ scengenindex. html, Apr. 2001.
[19] E. Royer and C. Perkins, “Multicast Operation of the Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol,” Proc. ACM Mobicom '99 Conf., pp. 207-218, Aug. 1999.
[20] P. Sinha, R. Sivakumar, and V. Bharghavan, “MCEDAR: Multicast Core Extraction Distributed Ad Hoc Routing,” Proc. Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., 1999.
[21] C. Wu, Y. Tay, and C. Toh, “Ad Hoc Multicast Routing Protocol Utilizing Increasing Id-NumberS (AMRIS),” IETF manet, draft-ietf-manet-amris-spec-00.txt, 1998.
[22] J. Yoon, M. Liu, and B. Noble, “Random Waypoint Considered Harmful,” Proc. IEEE/INFOCOM Conf., 2003.

Index Terms:
Index Terms- Ad hoc networks, mobile computing, multicast, routing protocols, wireless.
Citation:
Kumar Viswanath, Katia Obraczka, Gene Tsudik, "Exploring Mesh and Tree-Based Multicast Routing Protocols for MANETs," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 28-42, Jan. 2006, doi:10.1109/TMC.2006.11
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.