This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
TCP-DCR: A Novel Protocol for Tolerating Wireless Channel Errors
September/October 2005 (vol. 4 no. 5)
pp. 517-529
Sumitha Bhandarkar, IEEE Computer Society
A.L. Narasimha Reddy, IEEE Computer Society
Nitin H. Vaidya, IEEE Computer Society
This paper presents TCP-DCR, a set of simple modifications to the TCP protocol to improve its robustness to channel errors in wireless networks. TCP-DCR is based on the simple idea of allowing the link-level mechanism to recover the packets lost, due to channel errors, thereby limiting the response of the transport protocol to mostly congestion losses. This is done by delaying the triggering of congestion response algorithms for a small bounded period of time \tau to allow the link-level retransmissions to recover the loss due to channel errors. If at the end of the delay \tau the packet is not recovered, then it is treated as a packet lost due to congestion. We analyze TCP-DCR to show that the delay in congestion response does not impact the fairness towards the native implementations of TCP that respond to congestion immediately after receiving three dupacks. We evaluate TCP-DCR through simulations to show that it offers significantly better performance when channel errors contribute more towards packet losses in the network with no or minimal impact on the performance when congestion is the primary cause for packet loss. We also present an analysis to show that protocol evaluation in the wireless networks is significantly influenced by the number of flows in the network.

[1] H. Balakrishnan, V. Padmanabhan, S. Seshan, and R.H. Katz, “A Comparison of Mechanisms for Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Links,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, 1997.
[2] A. Bakre and B.R. Badrinath, “I-TCP: Indirect TCP for Mobile Hosts,” Proc. 15th. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), May 1995.
[3] R. Yavatkar and N. Bhagawat, “Improving End-to-End Performance of TCP over Mobile Internetworks,” Proc. Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, Dec. 1994.
[4] K. Brown and S. Singh, “M-TCP: TCP for Mobile Cellular Networks,” ACM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 27, no. 5, 1997.
[5] K.-Y. Wang and S.K. Tripathi, “Mobile-End Transport Protocol: An Alternative to TCP/IP over Wireless links,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '98, vol. 3, p. 1046, 1998.
[6] H. Balakrishnan, S. Seshan, E. Amir, and R. Katz, “Improving TCP/IP Performance over Wireless Networks,” Proc. ACM MOBICOM, Nov. 1995.
[7] H.M. Chaskar, T.V. Lakshman, and U. Madhow, “TCP over Wireless with Link Level Error Control: Analysis and Design Methodology,” IEEE Trans. Networking, vol. 7, no. 5, Oct. 1999.
[8] D.A. Eckhardt and P. Steenkiste, “Improving Wireless LAN Performance via Adaptive Local Error Control,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), Oct. 1998.
[9] H. Balakrishnan and R.H. Katz, “Explicit Loss Notification and Wireless Web Performance,” Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov. 1998.
[10] K. Ramakrishnan and S. Floyd, “A Proposal to Add Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP,” RFC 2481, Jan. 1999.
[11] R. Krishnan, M. Allman, C. Partridge, and J.P.G. Sterbenz, “Explicit Transport Error Notification for Error-Prone Wireless and Satellite Networks,” BBN Technical Report No. 8333, BBN Tech nologies, Feb. 2002.
[12] P. Sinha, N. Venkitaraman, R. Sivakumar, and V. Bhargavan, “WTCP: A Reliable Transport Protocol for Wireless Wide-Area Networks,” Proc. ACM MOBICOM, Aug. 1999.
[13] N.H. Vaidya, M. Mehta, C. Perkins, and G. Montenegro, “Delayed Duplicate Acknowledgement: A TCP-Unaware Approach to Improve Performance of TCP over Wireless,” J. Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing, special issue on reliable transport protocols for mobile computing, Feb. 2002.
[14] M. Mathis, J. Mahdavi, S. Floyd, and A. Romanow, “TCP Selective Acknowledgment Options,” RFC 2018, Oct. 1996.
[15] S. Mascolo, C. Casetti, M. Gerla, M. Sanadidi, and R. Wang, “TCP Westwood: Bandwidth Estimation for Enhanced Transport over Wireless Links,” Proc. ACM MOBICOM, 2001.
[16] D. Bansal and H. Balakrishnan, “TCP-Friendly Congestion Control for Real-Time Streaming Applications,” Proc. INFOCOM '00, Apr. 2000, also available at “Binomial Congestion Control Algorithms,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.
[17] D. Bansal, H. Balakrishnan, S. Floyd, and S. Shenker, “Dynamic Behavior of Slowly Responsive Congestion Control Algorithms,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Sept. 2001.
[18] S. Floyd, M. Handley, J. Padhye, and J. Widmer, “Equation-Based Congestion Control for Unicast Applications,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2000.
[19] M. Mathis, J. Semske, J. Mahdavi, and T. Ott, “The Macroscopic Behavior of the TCP Congestion Avoidance Algorithms,” ACM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 27, no. 3, July 1997.
[20] T.V. Lakshman and U. Madhow, “The Performance of TCP/IP for Networks with High Bandwidth-Delay Products and Random Loss,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 5, no. 3, June 1997.
[21] ns-2 Network Simulator, http://www.isi.edunsnam/, 2004.
[22] R. Han and D.G. Messerschmitt, “A Progressively Reliable Transport Protocol For Interactive Wireless Multimedia” ACM/Springer-Verlag Multimedia Systems J., vol. 7, no. 2, Mar. 1999.
[23] M. Zhang, B. Karp, S. Floyd, and L. Peterson, “RR-TCP: A Reordering-Robust TCP with DSACK,” ICSI Technical Report TR-02-006, Berkeley, Calif., July 2002.
[24] M. Allman, V. Paxson, and W. Stevens, “TCP Congestion Control,” RFC 2581, Apr. 1999.
[25] M. Allman, H. Balakrishnan, and S. Floyd, “Enhancing TCP's Loss Recovery Using Limited Transmit,” RFC 3042, Proposed Standard, Jan. 2001.
[26] M. Allman, D. Glover, and L. Sanchez, “Enhancing TCP over Satellite Channels Using Standard Mechanisms,” RFC 2488, Jan. 1999.
[27] J. Border, M. Kojo, J. Griner, G. Montenegro, and Z. Shelby, “Performance Enhancing Proxies Intended to Mitigate Link-Related Degradations,” RFC 3135, June 2001.

Index Terms:
Index Terms- Wireless network, channel errors, TCP, delayed congestion response, local recovery.
Citation:
Sumitha Bhandarkar, Nauzad Erach Sadry, A.L. Narasimha Reddy, Nitin H. Vaidya, "TCP-DCR: A Novel Protocol for Tolerating Wireless Channel Errors," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 517-529, Sept.-Oct. 2005, doi:10.1109/TMC.2005.72
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.