This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
On Supporting Power-Efficient Streaming Applications in Wireless Environments
July/August 2005 (vol. 4 no. 4)
pp. 391-403
Reducing the power consumption of the wireless network interface (WNI) is an effective way to prolong the battery lifetime of the mobile terminal. It takes some time for the WNI to transit from the power-saving mode to the active mode. This transition delay and the error-prone wireless link bring many challenges for designing power-aware and QoS-aware service models. In this paper, we present a novel power-conserving service model for streaming applications over wireless networks. At the base station side, a new scheduling algorithm, called rate-based bulk scheduling (RBS), is designed to decide which flow should be served at which time. The mobile terminal relies on a proxy to buffer data so that the WNI can sleep for a long time period to save power. To deal with channel errors, a novel adaptive technique is presented to adjust the sleep time of the WNI according to the channel condition. Through analysis, we prove that RBS can provide delay guarantee and it is more power efficient than other rate-based fair queuing algorithms. We use Audio-on-Demand as a case study to evaluate the performance of RBS. Experimental results show that RBS achieves excellent QoS provision for each flow and significantly reduces the power consumption.

[1] P. Bender, P. Black, M. Grob, R. Padovani, N. Nagabhushana, and A. Viterbi, “CDMA/HDR: A Bandwidth-Efficient High-Speed Wireless Data Service for Momadic Users,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, July 2000.
[2] J. Bennett and H. Zhang, “WF2Q: Worst-Case Fair Weighted Fair Queueing,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 1996.
[3] S. Chandra and A. Vahdat, “Application-Specific Network Management for Energy-Aware Streaming of Popular Multimedia Formats,” Proc. USENIX Ann. Technical Conf., 2002.
[4] J.C. Chen, K.M. Sivalingam, P. Agrawal, and R. Acharya, “Scheduling Multimedia Services in a Low-Power MAC for Wireless and Mobile ATM Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Multimedia, vol. 1, no. 2, June 1999.
[5] Reuters Company News, “Music via Mobiles Hits High Note with Young Crowd,” gedin_1.html , 2002.
[6] F.H. Fitzek and M. Reisslein, “A Prefetching Protocol for Continuous Media Streaming in Wireless Environments,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 19, no. 10, Oct. 2001.
[7] P. Goyal, H. Vin, and H. Cheng, “Start-Time Fair Queuing: A Scheduling Algorithm for Integrated Services Packet Switching Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 1996.
[8] IEEE, “Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Spec,” IEEE 802.11 Standard, 1999.
[9] K. Ito, T. Kumagai, K. Harada, T. Sonobe, T. Tomita, and E. Ikeda, “Radio Network Control System,” Fujutsu Science and Technology J., Dec. 2002.
[10] F. Kelly, “Charging and Rate Control for Elastic Traffic,” The European Trans. Telecomm., vol. 2, 1997.
[11] R. Krashinsky and H. Balakrishnan, “Minimizing Energy for Wireless Web Access with Bounded Shutdown,” Proc. ACM Mobicom, 2002.
[12] Q. Li, J. Aslam, and D. Rus, “Online Power-Aware Routing in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM Mobicom, July 2001.
[13] X. Liu, E.K.P. Chong, and N.B. Shroff, “Transmission Scheduling for Efficient Wireless Utilization,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.
[14] Y. Liu, S. Gruhl, and E. Knightly, “WCFQ: An Opportunistic Wireless Scheduler with Statistical Fairness Bounds,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 2, no. 5, Sept. 2003.
[15] S. Lu, T. Nandagopal, and V. Bharghavan, “A Wireless Fair Service Algorithm for Packet Cellular Networks,” Proc. ACM Mobicom, Oct. 1998.
[16] Motorola, “Motorola V 60i User Manual,” http://commerce. manual.html, 2005.
[17] T.S.E. Ng, I. Stoica, and H. Zhang, “Packet Fair Queueing Algorithms for Wireless Networks with Location-Dependent Errors,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 1998.
[18] Nokia, “Nokia 5510 Specifications,” , 2005.
[19] MPEG Org, “MP3 Test Streams,”, 2005.
[20] B. Prabhakar, E. Uysal-Biyikoglu, and A. El Gamal, “Energy-Efficient Transmission over a Wireless Link via Lazy Packet Scheduling,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2001.
[21] Qualcomm, “MSM6500 Chipset Solution,” http://www.cdma , 2005.
[22] S. Shakkottai and R. Srikant, “Threshold-Based Dynamic Replication in Large-Scale Video-on-Demand Systems,” Wireless Networks, vol. 8, pp. 13-26, 2002.
[23] T. Simunic and S. Boyd, “Managing Power Consumption in Networks on Chips,” Proc. ACM DATE, 2002.
[24] M. Stemm and R.H. Katz, “Measuring and Reducing Energy Consumption of Network Interfaces in Handheld Devices,” IEICE Trans. Comm., vol. E80-B, no. 8, Aug. 1997.
[25] D. Stiliadis and A. Varma, “Latency-Rate Servers: A General Model for Analysis of Traffic Scheduling Algorithms,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 6, Oct. 1998.
[26] V. Vanghi, A. Damnjanovic, and B. Vojcic, The cdma2000 System for Mobile Communications. Upper Saddle, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2004.
[27] B.H. Walke, Mobile Radio Networks: Networking, Protocols, and Traffic Performance, second ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2002.
[28] H.S. Wang and N. Moayeri, “Finite-State Markov Channel— A Useful Model for Radio Communication Channels,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 163-171, Feb. 1995.
[29] A. Wang, S. Cho, C.G. Sodini, and P. Chandrakasan, “Energy Efficient Modulation and MAC for Asymmetric RF Microsensor System,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Low Power Electronics and Design, 2001.
[30] J. Xu and R.J. Lipton, “On Fundamental Tradeoff between Delay Bounds and Computational Complexity in Packet Scheduling Algorithm,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 2002.
[31] Y. Xu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “Geography-Informed Energy Conservation for Ad Hoc Routing,” Proc. Mobicom, July 2001.
[32] W. Yuan and K. Nahrstedt, “Buffering Approach for Energy Saving in Video Sensors,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Multimedia and Expo (ICME), 2003.
[33] H. Zhang, “Service Disciplines for Guaranteed Performance Service in Packet-Switching Networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 83, no. 10, Oct. 1995.
[34] H.Y. Zhang, Y. Ge, C.J. Hou, and L. Sha, “Energy-Efficient Real-Time Scheduling in IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs,” Proc. IEEE 23th IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2003.
[35] H. Zhu and G. Cao, “A Power-Aware and QoS-Aware Service Model on Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004.

Index Terms:
Index Terms- Power-aware, simulations, QoS, scheduling, wireless networks.
Hao Zhu, Guohong Cao, "On Supporting Power-Efficient Streaming Applications in Wireless Environments," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 391-403, July-Aug. 2005, doi:10.1109/TMC.2005.58
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.