This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
AO2P: Ad Hoc On-Demand Position-Based Private Routing Protocol
July/August 2005 (vol. 4 no. 4)
pp. 335-348
Privacy is needed in ad hoc networks. An ad hoc on-demand position-based private routing algorithm, called AO2P, is proposed for communication anonymity. Only the position of the destination is exposed in the network for route discovery. To discover routes with the limited routing information, a receiver contention scheme is designed for determining the next hop. Pseudo identifiers are used for data packet delivery after a route is established. Real identities (IDs) for the source nodes, the destination nodes, and the forwarding nodes in the end-to-end connections are kept private. Anonymity for a destination relies on the difficulty of matching a geographic position to a real node ID. This can be enforced by the use of secure position service systems. Node mobility enhances destination anonymity by making the match of a node ID with a position momentary. To further improve destination privacy, R-AO2P is proposed. In this protocol, the position of a reference point, instead of the position of the destination, is used for route discovery. Analytical models are developed for evaluating the delay in route discovery and the probability of route discovery failure. A simulator based on ns{\hbox{-}}2 is developed for evaluating network throughput. Analysis and simulation results show that, while AO2P preserves communication privacy in ad hoc networks, its routing performance is comparable with other position-based routing algorithms.

[1] C.E. Perkins and E.M. Royer, “Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing,” Proc. Second IEEE Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, 1999.
[2] D. Johnson and D. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM-Computer Comm. Review, 1996
[3] C.E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, “Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 1994.
[4] R. Sherwood, B. Bhattacharjee, and A. Srinivasan, “p5: A Protocol for Scalable Anonymous Communication,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Security and Privacy, 2002.
[5] V. Scarlata, B. Levine, and C. Shields, “Responder Anonymity and Anonymous Peer-to-Peer File Sharing,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols, 2001.
[6] E. Bommaiah, A. McAuley, R. Talpade, and M. Liu, “AMRoute: Ad Hoc Multicast Routing Protocol,” Internet-Draft, IETF, Aug. 1998.
[7] L. Sweeney, “K-Anonymity: A Model for Protecting Privacy,” Int'l J. Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 557-570, 2002.
[8] L. Xiao, Z. Xu, and X. Zhang, “Low-Cost and Reliable Mutual Anonymity Protocols in Peer-to-Peer Networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 829-840, 2003.
[9] M. Reed, P. Syverson, and D. Goldschlag, “Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., special issue on copyright and privacy protection, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 482-494, 1998.
[10] M.K. Reiter and A.D. Rubin, “Crowds: Anonymity for Web Transactions,” ACM Trans. Information and System Security, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 6-92, 1998.
[11] I. Stojmenovic, “Position Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 128-134, 2002.
[12] D. Katabi and J. Wroclawski, “A Framework for Scalable Global IP-Anycast (GIA),” Proc. Conf. Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Comm., 2000.
[13] Y. Zhong and B. Bhargava, “Using Entropy to Trade Privacy for Trust,” Proc. Workshop Secure Knowledge Management, 2004.
[14] D. Kesdogan, J. Egner, and R. Buschkes, “Stop-And-Go-MIXes Providing Probabilistic Anonymity in an Open System,” Proc. Int'l Information Hiding Workshop, 1998.
[15] A. Serjantov and G. Danezis, “Towards an Information Theoretic Metric for Anonymity,” R. Dingledine and P. Syverson, eds., Proc. Privacy Enhancing Technologies Workshop, 2002.
[16] J. Kong and X. Hong, “ANODR: Anonymous on Demand Routing with Untraceable Routes for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. Fourth ACM Int'l Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, 2003.
[17] B. Karp and H.T. Kung, “GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Network,” Proc. MOBICOM, 2000.
[18] P. Bose, P. Morin, I. Stojmenovic, and J. Urrutia, “Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks,” ACM Wireless Networks, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 609-616, Nov. 2001.
[19] R. Jain, A. Puri, and R. Sengupta, “Geographical Routing Using Partial Information for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Personal Comm. Magazine, pp. 48-57, Feb. 2001.
[20] I. Stojmenovic, M. Russell, and B. Vukojevic, “Depth First Search and Location Based Localized Routing and QoS Routing in Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing, 2000.
[21] B. Bhargava, X. Wu, Y. Lu, and W. Wang, “Integrating Heterogeneous Wireless Technologies: A Cellular-Assisted Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Mobile Network and Applications, special issue on integration of heterogeneous wireless technologies, no. 9, pp. 393-408, 2004.
[22] L. Blazevic, L. Buttyan, S. Giordano, J.-P. Hubaux, and J.-Y. Le Boudec, “Self-Organization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: The Approach of Terminodes,” IEEE Personal Comm. Magazine, pp. 166-174, June 2000.
[23] Y. Xue, B. Li, and K. Nahrstedt, “A Scalable Location Management Scheme in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. 26th Ann. IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks, 2001.
[24] X. Wu, “DISPOSER: DIstributed Secure POSition SERvice in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Technical Report CSD TR # 04-027, Dept. Computer Sciences, 2004.
[25] ETSI HIPERLAN/1 Standard, hiperlan1.asp, 1998.
[26] G. Anastasi, L. Lenzini, and E. Mingozzi, “Stability and Performance Analysis of HIPERLAN,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Comm. (INFOCOM), 1998.

Index Terms:
Index Terms- Ad hoc routing protocol, anonymity, communication privacy, channel access mechanism.
Xiaoxin Wu, Bharat Bhargava, "AO2P: Ad Hoc On-Demand Position-Based Private Routing Protocol," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 335-348, July-Aug. 2005, doi:10.1109/TMC.2005.50
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.