The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.01 - January-March (2003 vol.2)
pp: 40-51
ABSTRACT
<p><b>Abstract</b>—Modern Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) architectures often utilize a wholesale data transfer protocol known as "slow sync" for synchronizing PDAs with Personal Computers (PCs). This approach is markedly inefficient with respect to bandwidth usage, latency, and energy consumption since the PDA and PC typically share many common records. We propose, analyze, and implement a novel PDA synchronization scheme (CPIsync) predicated upon recent information-theoretic research. The salient property of this scheme is that its communication complexity depends on the number of differences between the PDA and PC, and is essentially independent of the overall number of records. Moreover, our implementation shows that the computational complexity and energy consumption of CPIsync is practical and that the overall latency is typically much smaller than that of slow sync or alternative synchronization approaches based on Bloom filters. Thus, CPIsync has potential for significantly improving synchronization protocols for PDAs and, more generally, for heterogeneous networks of many machines.</p>
INDEX TERMS
Personal Digital Assistant, mobile computing, data synchronization.
CITATION
David Starobinski, Sachin Agarwal, "Efficient PDA Synchronization", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.2, no. 1, pp. 40-51, January-March 2003, doi:10.1109/TMC.2003.1195150
REFERENCES
[1] “Palm Developer On-Line Documentation,” http://palmos.com/dev/supportdocs, 2003
[2] Y. Minsky, A. Trachtenberg, and R. Zippel, “Set Reconciliation with Nearly Optimal Communication Complexity,” Technical Report TR1999-1778, TR2000-1796, TR2000-1813, Cornell Univ., 2000.
[3] Y. Minsky, A. Trachtenberg, and R. Zippel, “Set Reconciliation with Nearly Optimal Communication Complexity,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Information Theory, p. 232, June 2001.
[4] B.H. Bloom, “Space/Time Trade-Offs in Hash Coding with Allowable Errors,” Comm. ACM, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 422-426, July 1970.
[5] L. Fan, P. Cao, J. Almeida, and A.Z. Broder, “Summary Cache: A Scalable Wide-Area Web Cache Sharing Protocol,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 281-293, June 2000.
[6] S. Agarwal, D. Starobinski, and A. Trachtenberg, On the Scalability of Data Synchronization Protocols for PDAs and Mobile Devices IEEE Network, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 22-28, July-Aug. 2002.
[7] “SyncML,” http:/www.syncml.org, 2003.
[8] J.J. Kistler and M. Satyanarayanan, "Disconnected Operation in the Coda File System," ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 10, no. 1, Feb. 1992, pp. 3-25.
[9] D.B. Terry, M.M. Theimer, K. Petersen, A.J. Demers, M.J. Spreitzer, and C.H. Hauser, Managing Update Conflicts in a Weakly Connected Replicated Storage System Proc. ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles, 1995.
[10] D. Ratner, G.J. Popek, P. Reiher, and R. Guy, “Peer Replication with Selective Control,” Proc. MDA '99, First Int'l Conf. Mobile Data Access, Dec. 1999.
[11] U. Cetintemel, P.J. Keleher, and M. Franklin, “Support for Speculative Update Propagation and Mobility in Deno,” Proc. 22nd Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, 2001.
[12] M. Denny and C. Wells, “EDISON: Enhanced Data Interchange Services over Networks,” class project, UC Berkeley, May 2000.
[13] K.A.S. Abdel-Ghaffar and A.E. Abbadi, “An Optimal Strategy for Comparing File Copies,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 5, pp. 87-93, Jan. 1994.
[14] M. Karpovsky, L. Levitin, and A. Trachtenberg, “Data Verification and Reconciliation with Generalized Error-Control Codes,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, 2003, to appear.
[15] Y. Minsky, A. Trachtenberg, and R. Zippel, “Set Reconciliation with Nearly Optimal Communication Complexity,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, 2000, submitted.
[16] R.A. Golding, “Weak-Consistency Group Communication and Membership,” PhD thesis, UC Santa Cruz, Dec. 1992. Also published as technical report UCSC-CRL-92-52.
[17] M. Harchol-Balter, T. Leighton, and D. Lewin, “Resource Discovery in Distributed Networks,” Proc. 18th Ann. ACM-SIGACT/SIGOPS Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing, May 1999.
[18] R. van Renesse, “Captain Cook: A Scalable Navigation Service,” In preparation.
[19] R. van Renesse, Y. Minsky, and M. Hayden, “A Gossip-Style Failure Detection Service,” Proc. Middleware '98: IFIP Int'l Conf. Distributed Systems Platforms and Open Distributed Processing, N. Davies, K. Raymond, and J. Seitz, eds., pp. 55-70, 1998.
[20] K. Guo, M. Hayden, R. van Renesse, W. Vogels, and K. Birman, “GSGC: An Efficient Gossip-Based Garbage Collection Scheme for Scalable Reliable Multicast,” Technical Report TR-97-1656, Dept. of Computer Science, Cornell Univ., 1997.
[21] M. Karpovsky, L. Levitin, and A. Trachtenberg, “Data Verification and Reconciliation with Generalized Error-Control Codes,” Proc. 39th Ann. Allerton Conf. Comm., Control, and Computing, Oct. 2001.
[22] A.C. Yao, “Some Complexity Questions Related to Distributive Computing,” Proc. 11th Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing, pp. 209-213, 1979.
[23] A. Silberschatz, H.F. Kort, and S. Sudarshan, Database System Concepts. McGraw-Hill, third ed., 1999.
[24] “GNU Multi-Precision Library,” http://www.swox.comgmp/, 2003.
[25] V. Shoup, “NTL: A Library for Doing Number Theory,” http://shoup.netntl/, 2003.
[26] “Pilot PRC-Tools,” http://sourceforge.net/projectsprc-tools /, 2003.
[27] S. Weisberg, Applied Linear Regression. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1985.
[28] A. Trachtenberg, D. Starobinski, and S. Agarwal, “Fast PDA Synchronization Using Characteristic Polynomial Interpolation,” Proc. INFOCOM, June 2002.
7 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool