This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Two-Level Pointer Forwarding Strategy for Location Management in PCS Networks
January-March 2002 (vol. 1 no. 1)
pp. 32-45

For a PCS network to effectively deliver services to its mobile users, it must have an efficient way to keep track of the mobile users. The location management fulfills this task through location registration and paging. To reduce the signaling traffic, many schemes such as Local Anchor (LA) scheme, per-user caching scheme and pointer forwarding scheme have been proposed in the past. In this paper, we present a new location management scheme which intends to mitigate the signaling traffic as well as reduce the tracking delay in the PCS systems. In this strategy, we choose a set of VLRs traversed by users as the Mobility Agents (MA), which form another level of management in order to make some registration signaling traffic localized. The idea is as follows: Instead of always updating to the HLR, which would become the bottleneck otherwise, many location updates are carried out in the mobility agents. Thus, the two-level pointer forwarding scheme is designed to reduce the signaling traffic: Pointers can be set up between VLRs as the traditional pointer forwarding scheme and can also be set up between MAs. The numerical results show that this strategy can significantly reduce the network signaling traffic for users with low CMR without increasing much of the call setup delay.

[1] EIT/TIA, “Cellular Radio Telecommunications Intersystem Operations,” Technical Report IS-41 (Revision B), EIA/TIA, 1991.
[2] ETSI, Digital Cellular Telecommunications System (Phase 2+): Mobile Application Part (MAP) Specification (GSM 09.02 version 7.51 Release). 1998.
[3] J.S.M. Ho and I.F. Akyildiz, “Local Anchor Scheme for Reducing Signaling Cost in Personal Communication Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, Oct. 1996.
[4] R. Jain and Y.B. Lin, “An Auxiliary User Location Strategy Employing Forwarding Pointers to Reduce Network Impacts of PCS,” Wireless Networks 1, pp. 197-210, 1995.
[5] Y. Fang, I. Chlamtac, and Y.B. Lin, “Portable Movement Modeling for PCS Networks,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 87, no. 8, pp. 1347-1384, Aug. 1999.
[6] I.F. Akyildiz, J. McNair, J.S.M. Ho, H. Uzunalioglu, and W. Wang, “Mobility Management in Next-Generation Wireless Systems,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 4, no. 5, Oct. 1996.
[7] S. Tabbane, “Location Management Methods for Third-Generation Mobile System,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, Aug. 1997.
[8] Y.B. Lin and I. Chlamtac, Wireless and Mobile Network Architectures. John Wiley&Sons, Inc, 2001.
[9] Y.B. Lin, Y.R. Haung, Y.K. Chen, and I. Chlamtac, “Mobility Management: from GPRS to UMTS,” Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing (WCMC), vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 339-359, 2001.
[10] R. Jain, Y.B. Lin, C. Lo, and S. Mohan, “A Caching Strategy to Reduce Network Impacts of PCS,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 12, no. 8, Oct. 1994.

Index Terms:
PCS networks, mobility management, pointer forwarding, location management.
Wenchao Ma, Yuguang Fang, "Two-Level Pointer Forwarding Strategy for Location Management in PCS Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 32-45, Jan.-March 2002, doi:10.1109/TMC.2002.1011057
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.