Issue No.03 - March (2013 vol.25)
pp: 556-570
Luca Anselma , Universita di Torino, Torino
Alessio Bottrighi , Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria
Stefania Montani , Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria
Paolo Terenziani , Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria
The cooperative construction of data/knowledge bases has recently had a significant impulse (see, e.g., Wikipedia [1]). In cases in which data/knowledge quality and reliability are crucial, proposals of update/insertion/deletion need to be evaluated by experts. To the best of our knowledge, no theoretical framework has been devised to model the semantics of update proposal/evaluation in the relational context. Since time is an intrinsic part of most domains (as well as of the proposal/evaluation process itself), semantic approaches to temporal relational databases (specifically, Bitemporal Conceptual Data Model (henceforth, BCDM) [2]) are the starting point of our approach. In this paper, we propose {\rm BCDM^{PV}}, a semantic temporal relational model that extends BCDM to deal with multiple update/insertion/deletion proposals and with acceptances/rejections of proposals themselves. We propose a theoretical framework, defining the new data structures, manipulation operations and temporal relational algebra and proving some basic properties, namely that {\rm BCDM^{PV}} is a consistent extension of BCDM and that it is reducible to BCDM. These properties ensure consistency with most relational temporal database frameworks, facilitating implementations.
Temporal databases, Semantics, Data models, Database design, Encyclopedias, Knowledge discovery, Internet, modeling and management, Temporal databases, database semantics, database design
Luca Anselma, Alessio Bottrighi, Stefania Montani, Paolo Terenziani, "Extending BCDM to Cope with Proposals and Evaluations of Updates", IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol.25, no. 3, pp. 556-570, March 2013, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2011.170
[1] http:/, Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, 2009.
[2] C.S. Jensen and R.T. Snodgrass, "Semantics of Time-Varying Information," Information Systems, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 311-352, 1996.
[3] "Citizendium, a Citizens' Compendium of Everything," http:/, 2009.
[4] P. Terenziani, S. Montani, A. Bottrighi, G. Molino, and M. Torchio, Clinical Guidelines Adaptation: Managing Authoring and Versioning Issues, pp. 151-155, Springer 2005.
[5] Encyclopedia of Database Systems, L. Liu, M. Tamer Özsu eds., Springer, 2009.
[6] Y. Wu, S. Jajodia, and X. Sean Wang, "Temporal Database Bibliography Update," Temporal Databases, pp. 338-366, 1997.
[7] R.T. Snodgrass, Developing Time-Oriented Database Applications in SQL. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, July 1999.
[8] The TSQL2 Temporal Query Language, R.T. Snodgrass, (ed.), Kluwer, 1995.
[9] S.K. Gadia, "A Seamless Generic Extension of SQL for Querying Temporal Data," Technical Report TR-92-02. CS Dept, Iowa State Univ., 1992.
[10] J. Ben-Zvi, "The Time Relational Model," PhD Dissertation, Computer Science Department, UCLA, 1982.
[11] L.E. McKenzie, "An Algebraic Language for Query and Update of Temporal Databases," PhD Dissertation, Computer Science Department, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1988.
[12] R.T. Snodgrass, "The Temporal Query Language TQuel," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 247-298, 1987.
[13] C.S. Jensen, L. Mark, and N. Roussopoulos, "Incremental Implementation Model for Relational Databases with Transaction Time," IEEE Trans. Knowledge Data Eng., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 461-473, Dec. 1991.
[14] P. Terenziani, "Symbolic User-Defined Periodicity in Temporal Relational Databases," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 489-509, Feb. 2003.
[15] P. Terenziani and R.T. Snodgrass, "Reconciling Point-Based and Interval-Based Semantics in Temporal Relational Databases: A Treatment of the Telic/Atelic Distinction," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 540-551, May 2004.
[16] L. Anselma, P. Terenziani, and R.T. Snodgrass, "Valid Time Indeterminacy in Temporal Relational Databases: A Family of Data Models," Proc. 17th Int'l Symp. Temporal Representation and Reasoning, pp. 139-145, 2010.
[17] M.H. Böhlen, C.S. Jensen, and R.T. Snodgrass Temporal Compatibility, pp. 2936-2939, in [5].
[18] Oracle Database 10g Workspace Manager Overview. An Oracle White Paper database/workspace_manager/pdftwp_AppDev_Workspace_ Manager_10gR2.pdf , 2008.
[19] , 2009.
[20] C. Combi, and G. Pozzi, "Architectures for A Temporal Workflow Management System," Proc. ACM Symp. Applied Computing (SAC '04), pp. 659-666, 2004.
[21] J.L. Peterson, Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems. Prentice Hall, 1981.
[22] G. Chiola, C. Dutheillet, G. Franceschinis, and S. Haddad, "Stochastic Well-Formed Coloured Nets and Symmetric Modeling Applications," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1343-1360, Nov. 1993.
[23] K.R. Dittrich and R.A. Lorie, "Version Support for Engineering Database Systems," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 429-437, Apr. 1988.
[24] A. Vigo, "Estensioni Alle Basi Di Dati Temporali Per Il Supporto Alla Proposta Ed Alla Valutazione Di Modifiche Di Dati, Laura Degree Thesis in Computer Science," Università del Piemonte Orientale, 2009.
[25] Sun Microsystems, Introduction to the NSE. SUN Part No. 800-2362-1300, Mar. 1988.
[26] R. Johansen, GroupWare: Computer Support for Business Teams. The Free Press, 1988.
[27] R.H. Katz, "Towards a Unified Framework for Version Modeling in Engineering Databases," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 375-408, 1990.
[28] S. Gançarski, "Database Versions to Represent Bitemporal Databases," Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Database and Expert Systems Applications, pp. 832-841, 1999.
[29] M.M. Moro, N. Edelweiss, A.P. Zaupa, and C.S. Santos, TVQL-Temporal Versioned Query Language, pp. 618-627, Springer, 2002.
[30] R. Machado, Á. F. Moreira, R. de Matos Galante, and M.M. Moro, "Type-Safe Versioned Object Query Language," J. Universal Computer Science, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 938-957, 2006.
[31] E. Sciore, "Using Annotations to Support Multiple Kinds of Versioning in an Object-Oriented Database System," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 417-438, 1991.
[32] N.L. Sarda and P.V. Siva Prasada Reddy, "Handling of Alternatives and Events in Temporal Databases," Int'l J. Knowledge and Information Systems, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 193-227, 1999.
[33] N.N. Dalvi and D. Suciu, "Efficient Query Evaluation on Probabilistic Databases," VLDB J. vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 523-544, 2007.
[34] C. Combi Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Verona, Personal Communication, 2011.
[35] C. Combi and M. Gambini, "Flaws in the Flow: The Weakness of Unstructured Business Process Modeling Languages Dealing with Data," Proc. Confederated International Conf., CoopIS, DOA, IS, and ODBASE on the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems (OTM), vol. 1, pp. 42-59, 2009.
[36] N. Trcka, W.M.P. van der Aalst, and N. Sidorova, "Data-Flow Anti-Patterns: Discovering Data-Flow Errors in Workflows," Proc. 21st Int'l Conf. Advanced Information Systems Eng. (CAiSE), pp. 425-439, 2009.
[37] K.M. van Hee, Information Systems Engineering: A Formal Approach. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994.
[38] W.M.P. van der Aalst, P. Barthelmess, C.A. Ellis, and J. Wainer, "Proclets: A Framework for Lightweight Interacting Workflow Processes," Int'l J. Cooperative Information Systems, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 443-481, 2001.
[39] O. Habala, M. Paralic, V. Rozinajová, and P. Bartalos, "Semantically-Aided Data-Aware Service Workflow Composition," Proc. 35th Conf. Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, pp. 317-328, 2009.
[40] C. Combi, M. Gozzi, J.M. Juárez, B. Oliboni, and G. Pozzi, "Conceptual Modeling of Temporal Clinical Workflows," Proc. 14th Int'l Symp. Temporal Representation and Reasoning (TIME '07), pp. 70-81, 2007.