The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.10 - October (2011 vol.23)
pp: 1583-1600
Bettina Fazzinga , University of Calabria, Rende
Sergio Flesca , University of Calabria, Rende
Filippo Furfaro , University of Calabria, Rende
ABSTRACT
Query relaxation is the process of weakening a query to a more general one, and it is frequently employed to support approximate query answering. In this paper, rewriting systems for a wide fragment of XPath are investigated, which accomplish query relaxation through the application of simple rewriting rules transforming navigational axes and node tests into relaxed ones. Specifically, a general yet simple form of rewriting rules is considered, which subsumes the forms adopted in several rewriting systems for approximate XPath query answering. The expressiveness of rewriting systems based on this form of rules is characterized in terms of their capability of transforming a query into every more general formulation. It is shown that traditional rewriting systems are not only incomplete w.r.t. containment, but also w.r.t. the stricter form known as containment by homomorphism. This limitation is overcome by defining a set {\cal R}^{\ast} of rewriting rules which are still of the same simple form of traditional ones, but are expressive enough to catch at least containment by homomorphism. Then, an algorithm is proposed which exploits {\cal R}^{\ast} to provide approximate answers of queries along with a measure of their approximation degree.
INDEX TERMS
XPath, query relaxation, approximate query answering, information systems.
CITATION
Bettina Fazzinga, Sergio Flesca, Filippo Furfaro, "XPath Query Relaxation through Rewriting Rules", IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol.23, no. 10, pp. 1583-1600, October 2011, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2010.203
REFERENCES
[1] S. Amer-Yahia, S. Cho, and D. Srivastava, "Tree Pattern Relaxation," Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Extending Database Technology (EDBT), 2002.
[2] S. Amer-Yahia, N. Koudas, A. Marian, D. Srivastava, and D. Toman, "Structure and Content Scoring for XML," Proc. 31st Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB), 2005.
[3] S. Amer-Yahia, L.V.S. Lakshmanan, and S. Pandit, "FleXPath: Flexible Structure and Full-Text Querying for XML," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data (SIGMOD), 2004.
[4] A. Balmin, F. Ozcan, K. Beyer, R. Cochrane, and H. Pirahesh, "A Framework for Using Materialized XPath Views in XML Query Processing," Proc. 30th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB), 2004.
[5] M. Benedikt, W. Fan, and G.M. Kuper, "Structural Properties of XPath Fragments," Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Database Theory (ICDT), 2003.
[6] P. Buche, J. Dibie-Barthelemy, and F. Wattez, "Approximate Querying of XML Fuzzy Data," Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Flexible Querying and Answering Systems (FQAS), 2006.
[7] D. Calvanese, G. Giacomo, M. Lenzerini, and M.Y. Vardi, "Answering Regular Path Queries Using Views," Proc. 16th Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE), 2000.
[8] S.D. Camillo, C.A. Heuser, and R.S. Mello, "Querying Heterogeneous XML Sources through a Conceptual Schema," Proc. Int'l Conf. Conceptual Modeling (ER), 2003.
[9] A. Campi, S. Guinea, and P. Spoletini, "A Fuzzy Extension for the XPath Query Language," Proc. Int'l Conf. Flexible Querying and Answering Systems (FQAS), 2006.
[10] A. Chan, N. Situ, K. Wong, K. Kianmehr, and R. Alhajj, "Fuzzy Querying of Nested XML," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Information Reuse and Integration (IRI), 2008.
[11] L. Chen and E.A. Rundensteiner, "ACE-XQ: A Cache-aware XQuery Answering System," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Associated Workshop the Web and Databases (WebDB '02), 2002.
[12] E. Damiani, S. Marrara, and G. Pasi, "FuzzyXPath: Using Fuzzy Logic an IR Features to Approximately Query XML Documents," Proc. 12th Int'l Fuzzy Systems Assoc. (IFSA) World Congress on Foundations of Fuzzy Logic and Soft Computing Conf., 2007.
[13] M. de Calmes, H. Prade, and F. Sedes, "Flexible Querying of Semistructured Data: A Fuzzy-Set-Based Approach," Int'l J. Intelligent Systems, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 723-737, 2007.
[14] A. Deutsch and V. Tannen, "Reformulation of XML Queries and Constraints," Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Database Theory (ICDT), 2003.
[15] W. Fan, F. Geerts, X. Jia, and A. Kementsietsidis, "Rewriting Regular XPath Queries on XML Views," Proc. 23rd Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE), 2007.
[16] B. Fazzinga, S. Flesca, and A. Pugliese, "Retrieving XML Data from Heterogeneous Sources through Vague Querying," ACM Trans. Internet Technology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1-35, 2009.
[17] B. Fazzinga, S. Flesca, and A. Pugliese, "Top-k Answers to Fuzzy XPath Queries," Proc. 20th Int'l Conf. Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA), 2009.
[18] S. Flesca, F. Furfaro, and E. Masciari, "On the Minimization of XPath Queries," J. ACM, vol. 55, no. 1,article no. 2, pp. 1-46, 2008.
[19] N. Fuhr and K. Grossjohann, "XIRQL: An XML Query Language Based on Information Retrieval Concepts," ACM Trans. Information Systems, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 313-356, 2004.
[20] J. Groppe and S. Groppe, "Satisfiability-Test, Rewriting and Refinement of Users' XPath Queries According to XML Schema Definitions," Proc. 10th East European Conf. Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS), Sept. 2006.
[21] Y. Kanza and Y. Sagiv, "Flexible Queries over Semistructured Data," Proc. 20th ACM SIGMOD-SIGACT-SIGART Symp. Principles of Database Systems (PODS), 2001.
[22] L.V.S. Lakshmanan, H. Wang, and Z.J. Zhao, "Answering Tree Pattern Queries Using Views," Proc. 32nd Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB), 2006.
[23] B. Mandhani and D. Suciu, "Query Caching and View Selection for XML Databases," Proc. 31st Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB), 2005.
[24] I. Manolescu, D. Florescu, and D. Kossmann, "Answering XML Queries on Het- Erogeneous Data Sources," Proc. 27th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB), 2001.
[25] G. Miklau and D. Suciu, "Containment and Equivalence for a Fragment of XPath," J. ACM, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 2-45, 2004.
[26] N. Onose, A. Deutsch, Y. Papakonstantinou, and E. Curtmola, "Rewriting Nested XML Queries Using Nested Views," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, 2006.
[27] R.D. Rodrigues, A.J.O. Cruz, and R.T. Cavalcante, "Aliança: A Proposal for a Fuzzy Database Architecture Incorporating XML," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 269-279, 2009.
[28] T. Schlieder, "Schema-Driven Evaluation of Approximate Tree-Pattern Queries," Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Extending Database Technology (EDBT), 2002.
[29] I. Tatarinov and A.Y. Halevy, "Efficient Query Reformulation in Peer-Data Management Systems," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data (SIGMOD), 2004.
[30] B. ten Cate and M. Marx, "Axiomatizing the Logical Core of XPath 2.0," Proc. Int'l Conf. Database Theory (ICDT), 2007.
[31] A. Theobald and G. Weikum, "Adding Relevance to XML," Proc. Third Int'l Workshop The World Wide Web and Databases (WebDB), 2000.
[32] E. Ustunkaya, A. Yazici, and R. George, "Fuzzy Data Representation and Querying in XML Database," Int'l J. Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 15, no. Supplementary-1, pp. 43-57, 2007.
[33] J. Wang, J.X. Yu, and C. Liu, "On Tree Pattern Query Rewriting Using Views," Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Web Information Systems Eng. (Wise), 2007.
[34] W. Xu and Z.M. Ozsoyoglu, "Rewriting XPath Queries Using Materialized Views," Proc. 31st Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB), 2005.
[35] L.H. Yang, M. Lee, and W. Hsu, "Efficient Mining of XML Query Patterns for Caching," Proc. 29th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB), 2003.
[36] C. Yu and L. Popa, "Constraint-Based XML Query Rewriting for Data Integration," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data (SIGMOD), 2004.
23 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool