The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.05 - May (2011 vol.23)
pp: 759-773
Emilio Migueláñez , SeeByte, the Orchard Brae House, Edinburgh
Pedro Patrón , Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
Keith E. Brown , Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
Yvan R. Petillot , Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
David M. Lane , Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
ABSTRACT
This paper proposes a semantic world model framework for hierarchical distributed representation of knowledge in autonomous underwater systems. This framework aims to provide a more capable and holistic system, involving semantic interoperability among all involved information sources. This will enhance interoperability, independence of operation, and situation awareness of the embedded service-oriented agents for autonomous platforms. The results obtained specifically affect the mission flexibility, robustness, and autonomy. The presented framework makes use of the idea that heterogeneous real-world data of very different type must be processed by (and run through) several different layers, to be finally available in a suited format and at the right place to be accessible by high-level decision-making agents. In this sense, the presented approach shows how to abstract away from the raw real-world data step by step by means of semantic technologies. The paper concludes by demonstrating the benefits of the framework in a real scenario. A hardware fault is simulated in a REMUS 100 AUV while performing a mission. This triggers a knowledge exchange between the status monitoring agent and the adaptive mission planner embedded agent. By using the proposed framework, both services can interchange information while remaining domain independent during their interaction with the platform. The results of this paper are readily applicable to land and air robotics.
INDEX TERMS
Autonomous vehicles, ontology design, model-based diagnostics, mission planning.
CITATION
Emilio Migueláñez, Pedro Patrón, Keith E. Brown, Yvan R. Petillot, David M. Lane, "Semantic Knowledge-Based Framework to Improve the Situation Awareness of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles", IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol.23, no. 5, pp. 759-773, May 2011, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2010.46
REFERENCES
[1] J. Boyd, "OODA Loop," technical report, Center for Defense Information, 1995.
[2] J.A. Adams, "Unmanned Vehicle Situation Awareness: A Path Forward," Proc. 2007 Human Systems Integration Symp., 2007.
[3] J.E. Strutt, "Report of the Inquiry into the Loss of Autosub2 under the Fimbulisen," technical report, Nat'l Oceanography Centre, 2006.
[4] B. Pell, E. Gat, R. Keesing, N. Muscettola, and B. Smith, "Robust Periodic Planning and Execution for Autonomous Spacecraft," Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI '97), pp. 1234-1239, 1997.
[5] T.H. Collett, B.A. MacDonald, and B.P. Gerkey, "Player 2.0: Toward a Practical Robot Programming Framework," Proc. Australasian Conf. Robotics and Automation (ACRA '05), Dec. 2005.
[6] G. Metta, P. Fitzpatrick, and L. Natale, "YARP: Yet Another Robotic Platform," Int'l J. Advanced Robotics Systems, special issue on software development and integration in robotics, vol. 3, no. 1, 2006.
[7] P. Newman, "Introduction to Programming with MOOS," technical report, Oxford Robotics Research Group, 2009.
[8] P. Newman, "Under the Hood of the MOOS Communications API," technical report, Oxford Robotics Research Group, 2009.
[9] "OceanSHELL: An Embedded Library for Distributed Applications and Communications," technical report, Ocean Systems Laboratory, Heriot-Watt Univ., Aug. 2005.
[10] M. Somby, "A Review of Robotics Software Platforms," http://www.windowsfordevices.com/c/a/Windows-For-Devices- Articles A-review-of-robotics-software-platforms /, Aug. 2007.
[11] M. Arredondo, S. Reed, and Y.R. Petillot, "Battlespace Access for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles—Dynamic Multi-Dymensional World Modelling—Final Report," technical report, SeeByte Ltd.—Ministry of Defence, 2006.
[12] "Society of Automotive Engineers AS-4 AIR5665 JAUS Architecture Framework for Unmanned Systems," technical report, SAE Int'l Group, http:/www.jauswg.org/, 2008.
[13] A. Bouguerra, L. Karlsson, and A. Saffiotti, "Monitoring the Execution of Robot Plans Using Semantic Knowledge," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, pp. 942-954, http://www.sciencedirect. com/science/article/ B6V16-4T7XGSM-1/2 04f9b80a1f7cdebb975141bc910cd594 , 2008.
[14] C. Galindo, J.-A. Fernández-Madrigal, J. González, and A. Saffiotti, "Robot Task Planning Using Semantic Maps," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, pp. 955-966, http://www.sciencedirect. com/science/article/ B6V16-4T9CCW6-2/25bf373f40885a5995dbcf60b0a48ae80 , 2008.
[15] J. Hertzberg and A. Saffiotti, "Using Semantic Knowledge in Robotics," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 875-877, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ B6V16-4T72WWW-1/29edd0eb7357cb93ab0a7f0285979c469 , 2008.
[16] M. Chantler, G. Cogill, Q. Shen, and R. Leitch, "Selecting Tools and Techniques for Model Based Diagnosis," Artificial Intelligence in Eng., vol. 12, pp. 81-98, 1998.
[17] F.J. Uppal and R.J. Patton, "Fault Diagnosis of an Electro-Pneumatic Valve Actuator Using Neural Networks with Fuzzy Capabilities," Proc. European Symp. Artificial Neural Networks, pp. 501-506, 2002.
[18] M. Ghallab, D. Nau, and P. Traverso, Automated Planning: Theory and Practice. Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.
[19] G. Rabideau, R. Knight, S. Chien, A. Fukunaga, and A. Govindjee, "Iterative Repair Planning for Spacecraft Operations in the ASPEN Systems," Proc. Fifth Int'l Symp. Artificial Intelligence Robotics and Automation in Space, pp. 99-106, 1999.
[20] R. van der Krogt, "Plan Repair in Single-Agent and Multi-Agent Systems," PhD dissertation, Netherlands TRAIL Research School, 2005.
[21] A. Gerevini and I. Serina, "Fast Plan Adaptation through Planning Graphs: Local and Systematic Search Techniques," Proc. AAAI Conf. AI Planning Systems, pp. 112-121, 2000.
[22] A.L. Blum and M.L. Furst, "Fast Planning through Planning Graph Analysis," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 90, pp. 281-300, 1997.
[23] S. Koenig, M. Likhachev, and D. Furcy, "Lifelong Planning A∗," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 155, nos. 1/2, pp. 93-146, May 2004.
[24] C. Pêtrès, Y. Pailhas, P. Patrón, Y.R. Petillot, J. Evans, and D.M. Lane, "Path Planning for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles," IEEE Trans. Robotics, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 331-341, Apr. 2007.
[25] R. Turner, "Intelligent Mission Planning and Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles," Proc. Workshop Planning under Uncertainty for Autonomous Systems, 15th Int'l Conf. Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS '05), 2005.
[26] J. Bellingham, B. Kirkwood, and K. Rajan, "Tutorial on Issues in Underwater Robotic Applications," Proc. 16th Int'l Conf. Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS '06), 2006.
[27] K. Rajan, C. McGann, F. Py, and H. Thomas, "Robust Mission Planning Using Deliberative Autonomy for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles," Proc. Workshop Robotics in Challenging and Hazardous Environments, Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation (ICRA '07), 2007.
[28] M. Fox, D. Long, F. Py, K. Rajan, and J. Ryan, "In Situ Analysis for Intelligent Control," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Oceans (Oceans '07), Sept. 2007.
[29] C. McGann, F. Py, K. Rajan, H. Thomas, R. Henthorn, and R. McEwen, "T-REX: A Model-Based Architecture for AUV Control," Proc. Workshop in Planning and Plan Execution for Real-World Systems: Principles and Practices for Planning in Execution, Int'l Conf. Autonomous Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS '07), 2007.
[30] J. Thornton, "Survivability—Its Importance in the Maritime Environment," J. Defence Science, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 57-60, May 2005.
[31] M. Benjamin, J. Curcio, J. Leonard, and P. Newman, "Navigation of Unmanned Marine Vehicles in Accordance with the Rules of the Road," Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation (ICRA '06), May 2006.
[32] J. Evans, P. Patrón, B. Smith, and D. Lane, "Design and Evaluation of a Reactive and Deliberative Collision Avoidance and Escape Architecture for Autonomous Robots," J. Autonomous Robots, vol. 3, pp. 247-266, Dec. 2008.
[33] S. Blackburn, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford Univ. Press, 1996.
[34] T.R. Gruber, "Towards Principles for the Design of Ontologies Used for Knowledge Sharing," Int'l J. Human-Computer Studies, vol. 43, pp. 907-928, 1995.
[35] R.J. Brachman, D.L. McGuinness, P.F. Patel-Schneider, L.A. Resnick, and A. Borgida, "Living with Classic: When and How to Use a KL-ONE-Like Language," Principles of Semantic Networks: Explorations in the Representation of Knowledge, pp. 401-456, 1991.
[36] M. Uschold, M. King, S. Moralee, and Y. Zorgios, "The Enterprise Ontology," Knowledge Eng. Rev., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 31-89, 1998.
[37] G. van Heijst, A. Schreiber, and B. Wielinga, "Using Explicit Ontologies in Kbs Development," Int'l J. Human-Computer Studies, vol. 46, nos. 2/3, pp. 183-292, 1996.
[38] M.K. Smith, C. Welty, and D.L. McGuinness, "Owl Web Ontology Language Guide, w3c Recommendation," http://www.w3.org/TRowl-guide/, Feb. 2004.
[39] D. Becket and B. McBride, "Rdf Syntax Specification (Revised), Resource Description Framework," http://www.w3.org/TRrdf-syntax-grammar/, Feb. 2004.
[40] H. Chen, F. Perich, T. Finin, and A. Joshi, "Soupa: Standard Ontology for Ubiquitous and Pervasive Applications," Proc. Int'l Conf. Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services, 2004.
[41] H. Chen, T. Finin, and A. Joshi, "Using Owl in a Pervasive Computing Broker," Proc. Workshop Ontologies in Open Agent Systems, pp. 9-16, 2003.
[42] E. Blomqvist and K. Sandkuhl, "Patterns in Ontology Engineering Classification of Ontology Patterns," Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Enterprise Information Systems, 2005.
[43] R. Fikes and N. Nilsson, "STRIPS: A New Approach to the Application of Theorem Proving to Problem Solving," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 2, pp. 189-208, 1971.
[44] M. Ghallab, A. Howe, C. Knoblock, D. McDermott, A. Ram, M. Veloso, D. Weld, and D. Wilkins, "PDDL: The Planning Domain Definition Language," technical report, Yale Center for Computational Vision and Control, 1998.
[45] ICAPS, http:/www.icaps-conference.org/, 2008.
[46] S. Reed, I. Ruiz, C. Capus, and Y. Petillot, "The Fusion of Large Scale Classified Side-Scan Sonar Image Mosaics," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 2049-2060, July 2006.
23 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool