The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.04 - April (2009 vol.21)
pp: 537-553
Samee Ullah Khan , University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington
Ishfaq Ahmad , University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington
ABSTRACT
This paper proposes a non-cooperative game based technique to replicate data objects across a distributed system of multiple servers in order to reduce user perceived Web access delays. In the proposed technique computational agents represent servers and compete with each other to optimize the performance of their servers. The optimality of a non-cooperative game is typically described by Nash equilibrium, which is based on spontaneous and non-deterministic strategies. However, Nash equilibrium may or may not guarantee system-wide performance. Furthermore, there can be multiple Nash equilibria, making it difficult to decide which one is the best. In contrast, the proposed technique uses the notion of pure Nash equilibrium, which if achieved, guarantees stable optimal performance. In the proposed technique, agents use deterministic strategies that work in conjunction with their self-interested nature but ensure system-wide performance enhancement. In general, the existence of a pure Nash equilibrium is hard to achieve, but we prove the existence of such equilibrium in the proposed technique. The proposed technique is also experimentally compared against some well-known conventional replica allocation methods, such as branch and bound, greedy, and genetic algorithms.
INDEX TERMS
Distributed file systems, Distributed systems, Distributed databases, Storage/repositories
CITATION
Samee Ullah Khan, Ishfaq Ahmad, "A Pure Nash Equilibrium-Based Game Theoretical Method for Data Replication across Multiple Servers", IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol.21, no. 4, pp. 537-553, April 2009, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2008.171
REFERENCES
[1] M. Arlitt and T. Jin, “Workload Characterization of the 1998 World Cup Web Site,” Technical Report HPL-1999-35(R.1), Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto, 1999.
[2] R. Casey, “Allocation of Copies of a File in an Information Network,” Proc. IFIPS Spring Joint Computer Conf. (SJCC '72), pp.617-625, 1972.
[3] H. Chang, R. Govindan, S. Jamin, and S. Shenker, “Towards Capturing Representative AS-Level Internet Topologies,” Computer Networks J., vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 737-755, 2004.
[4] B.-G. Chun, K. Chaudhuri, H. Wee, M. Barreno, C. Papadimitriou, and J. Kubiatowicz, “Selfish Caching in Distributed Systems: A Game-Theoretic Analysis,” Proc. 23rd ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC '04), pp. 21-30, 2004.
[5] D.J. Cook, G.M. Youngblood, and S.K. Das, “A Multi-Agent Approach to Controlling a Smart Environment,” AI and Smart Homes, pp. 165-182, 2006.
[6] L. Dowdy and D. Foster, “Comparative Models of the File Assignment Problem,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 14, no. 2, pp.287-313, 1982.
[7] K. Eswaran, “Placement of Records in a File and File Allocation in a Computer Network,” Information Processing Letters, pp. 304-307, 1974.
[8] A. Fabrikant, C. Papadimitriou, and K. Talwar, “The Complexity of Pure Nash Equilibria,” Proc. 36th Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computation (STOC '04), pp. 604-612, 2004.
[9] S. Floyd and V. Paxson, “Difficulties in Simulating the Internet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 253-285, 2001.
[10] P. Habegger and H. Bieri, “Modeling the Topology of the Internet: An Assessment,” Technical Report IM-02-2002, Institut für Informatik und Angewandte Mathematik, Universität Bern, 2002.
[11] S. Hakimi, “Optimum Location of Switching Centers and the Absolute Centers and Medians of a Graph,” Operations Research, vol. 12, pp. 450-459, 1964.
[12] T. Hara, “Effective Replica Allocation in Ad Hoc Networks for Improving Data Accessibility,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '01, pp.1568-1576, 2001.
[13] S. Jamin, C. Jin, Y. Jin, D. Riaz, Y. Shavitt, and L. Zhang, “On the Placement of Internet Instrumentation,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '00, pp. 295-304, 2000.
[14] S. Jamin, C. Jin, T. Kurc, D. Raz, and Y. Shavitt, “Constrained Mirror Placement on the Internet,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '01, pp.31-40, 2001.
[15] J. Kangasharju, J. Roberts, and K. Ross, “Object Replication Strategies in Content Distribution Networks,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Workshop Web Caching and Content Distribution (WCW '01), pp.455-456, 2001.
[16] M. Karlsson and M. Mahalingam, “Do We Need Replica Placement Algorithms in Content Delivery Networks?” Proc. Seventh Int'l Workshop Web Caching and Content Distribution Workshop (WCW '02), pp. 117-128, 2002.
[17] S. Khan and I. Ahmad, “Heuristic-Based Replication Schemas for Fast Information Retrieval over the Internet,” Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems (PDCS '04), pp. 278-283, 2004.
[18] S. Khan and I. Ahmad, “A Powerful Direct Mechanism for Optimal WWW Content Replication,” Proc. 19th IEEE Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), 2005.
[19] S. Khan and I. Ahmad, “Non-Cooperative, Semi-Cooperative, and Cooperative Games-Based Grid Resource Allocation,” Proc. 20th IEEE Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), 2006.
[20] S.U. Khan and I. Ahmad, “Discriminatory Algorithmic Mechanism Design Based WWW Content Replication,” Informatica, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 105-119, 2007.
[21] E. Koutsoupias and C. Papadimitriou, “Worst-Case Equilibria,” LNCS, vol. 1563, pp. 404-413, 1999.
[22] N. Laoutaris, O. Telelis, V. Zissimopoulos, and I. Stavrakakis, “Local Utility Aware Content Replication,” Proc. Fourth Int'l IFIP-TC6 Networking Conf., 2005.
[23] B. Li, M. Golin, G. Italiano, and X. Deng, “On the Optimal Placement of Web Proxies in the Internet,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '00, pp. 1282-1290, 2000.
[24] T. Loukopoulos, I. Ahmad, and D. Papadias, “An Overview of Data Replication on the Internet,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Symp. Parallel Architectures Algorithms, and Networks (I-SPAN '02), pp. 31-36, 2002.
[25] T. Loukopoulos and I. Ahmad, “Static and Adaptive Distributed Data Replication Using Genetic Algorithms,” J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1270-1285, 2004.
[26] A. Medina, I. Matta, and J. Byers, “On the Origin of Power Laws in Internet Topologies,” ACM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 30, no. 2, pp.18-28, 2000.
[27] J. Nash, “Non-Cooperative Games,” Annals of Math., pp. 286-295, 1951.
[28] N. Nisan and A. Ronen, “Algorithmic Mechanism Design,” Proc.31st Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computation (STOC '99), pp.129-140, 1999.
[29] M. Osborne and A. Rubinstein, A Course in Game Theory. MITPress, 1994.
[30] L. Pautet and S. Tardieu, “GLADE: A Framework for Building Large Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Systems,” Proc. Third Int'l Symp. Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Systems (ISORC '00), pp. 244-251, 2000.
[31] L. Qiu, V. Padmanabhan, and G. Voelker, “On the Placement of Web Server Replicas,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '01, pp. 1587-1596, 2001.
[32] M. Rabinovich, “Issues in Web Content Replication,” Data Eng. Bull., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 21-29, 1998.
[33] M. Rabinovich, I. Rabinovich, R. Rajaraman, and A. Aggarwal, “A Dynamic Object Replication and Migration Protocol for an Internet Hosting Service,” Proc. 19th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '99), pp. 101-113, 1999.
[34] L. Rodrigues and M. Raynal, “Atomic Broadcast in Asynchronous Crash-Recovery Distributed Systems and Its Use in Quorum-Based Replication,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1206-1217, Sept./Oct. 2003.
[35] P. Sandanayake and D.J. Cook, “ONASI: Online Agent Modeling Using a Scalable Markov Model,” Int'l J. Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 757-779, 2003.
[36] D.L. Tennenhouse, J.M. Smith, W.D. Sincoskie, D.J. Wetherall, and G.J. Minden, “A Survey of Active Network Research,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 80-86, 1997.
[37] E. van Damme, Stability and Perfection of Nash Equilibria. Springer, 1996.
[38] B. Waxman, “Routing of Multipoint Connections,” IEEE J. Selected Areas of Comm., vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1617-1622, 1988.
[39] O. Wolfson, S. Jajodia, and Y. Hang, “An Adaptive Data Replication Algorithm,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 255-314, 1997.
[40] E. Zegura, K. Calvert, and M. Donahoo, “A Quantitative Comparison of Graph-Based Models for Internet Topology,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 770-783, 1997.
[41] G. Zipf, Human Behavior and the Principle of Least-Effort. Addison-Wesley, 1949.
30 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool