Issue No.01 - January (2009 vol.21)
pp: 78-91
Dongsheng Li , National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
Xicheng Lu , National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
Keith C. C. Chen , The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
With the increasing popularity of the peer-to-peer (P2P) computing paradigm, many general range query schemes for distributed hash table (DHT)-based P2P systems have been proposed in recent years. Although those schemes can provide range query capability without modifying the underlying DHTs, they have the query delay depending on both the scale of the system and the size of the query space or the specific query, and thus cannot guarantee to return the query results in a bounded delay. In this paper, we propose Armada, an efficient range query processing scheme to support delay-bounded single-attribute and multiple-attribute range queries. It is the first delay-bounded general range query scheme on constant-degree DHTs, and can return the results for any range query within 2logN hops in a P2P system with N peers. Results of analysis and simulations show that the average delay in Armada is less than logN, and the average message cost of single-attribute range queries is about logN+2n 2 (n is the number of peers that intersect with the query). These results are very close to the lower bounds on delay and message cost of range queries over constant-degree DHTs.
peer-to-peer, distributed hash table (DHT), range queries
Dongsheng Li, Xicheng Lu, Keith C. C. Chen, "Efficient Range Query Processing in Peer-to-Peer Systems", IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol.21, no. 1, pp. 78-91, January 2009, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2008.99
[1] I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Liben-Nowell, D.R. Karger, M.F. Kaashoek, F. Dabek, and H. Balakrishnan, “Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Protocol for Internet Applications,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 17-32, Feb. 2003.
[2] S. Ratnasamy, P. Francis, M. Handley, R. Karp, and S. Shenker, “AScalable Content-Addressable Network,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '01, pp. 149-160, 2001.
[3] B.Y. Zhao, L. Huang, J. Stribling, S.C. Rhea, A.D. Joseph, and J.D. Kubiatowicz, “Tapestry: A Resilient Global-Scale Overlay for Service Deployment,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 41-53, 2004.
[4] A. Rowstron and P. Druschel, “Pastry: Scalable, Distributed Object Location and Routing for Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Proc. IFIP/ACM Int'l Conf. Distributed Systems Platforms (Middleware '01), pp. 329-350, Nov. 2001.
[5] D.S. Li, X.C. Lu, and J. Wu, “FissionE: A Scalable Constant Degree and Low Congestion DHT Scheme Based on Kautz Graphs,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, pp. 1677-1688, 2005.
[6] S. Rhea, B. Godfrey, B. Karp, J. Kubiatowicz, S. Ratnasamy, S. Shenker, I. Stoica, and H. Yu, “OpenDHT: A Public DHT Service and Its Uses,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '05, Aug. 2005.
[7] Y. Chawathe, S. Ramabhadran, S. Ratnasamy, A. LaMarcay, S. Shenker, and J. Hellersteinz, “A Case Study in Building Layered DHT Applications,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '05, Aug. 2005.
[8] A. Gupta, D. Agrawal, and A.E. Abbadi, “Approximate Range Selection Queries in Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Proc. First Biennial Conf. Innovative Data Systems Research (CIDR '03), Jan. 2003.
[9] C. Schmidt and M. Parashar, “Enabling Flexible Queries with Guarantees in P2P Systems,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 19-26, 2004.
[10] A. Andrzejak and Z.C. Xu, “Scalable Efficient Range Queries for Grid Information Services,” Proc. Second IEEE Int'l Conf. Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P '02), Sept. 2002.
[11] J. Aspnes and G. Shah, “Skip Graphs,” Proc. 14th Ann. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms (SODA '03), pp. 384-393, 2003.
[12] N.J.A. Harvey, M.B. Jone, S. Saroiu, M. Theimer, and A. Wolman, “SkipNet: A Scalable Overlay Network with Practical Locality Properties,” Proc. Fourth USENIX Symp. Internet Technologies and Systems (USITS '03), Mar. 2003.
[13] K.C. Zatloukal and N.J.A. Harvey, “Family Trees: An Ordered Dictionary with Optimal Congestion, Locality, Degree, and Search Time,” Proc. 15th Ann. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms (SODA '04), pp. 301-310, 2004.
[14] M.T. Goodrich, M.J. Nelson, and J.Z. Sun, “The Rainbow Skip Graph: A Fault-Tolerant Constant-Degree Distributed Data Structure,” Proc. 16th Ann. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms (SODA '06), pp. 384-393, 2006.
[15] P. Ganesan, B. Yang, and H. Garcia-Molina, “One Torus to Rule Them All: Multidimensional Queries in P2P Systems,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Workshop Web and Databases (WebDB '04), June 2004.
[16] A.R. Bharambe, M. Agrawal, and S. Seshan, “Mercury: Supporting Scalable Multi-Attribute Range Queries,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2004.
[17] D. Oppenheimer, J. Albrecht, D. Patterson, and A. Vahdat, “Distributed Resource Discovery on Planetlab with SWORD,” Proc. First Workshop Real, Large Distributed Systems (WORLDS '04), Dec. 2004.
[18] B. Liu, W.C. Lee, and D.L. Lee, “Supporting Complex Multi-Dimensional Queries in P2P Systems,” Proc. 25th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2005.
[19] A. Crainiceanu, P. Linga, J. Gehrke, and J. Shanmugasundaram, “P-Tree: A P2P Index for Resource Discovery Applications,” Proc. 13th Int'l World Wide Web Conf. (WWW '04), May 2004.
[20] C. Zhang, A. Krishnamurthy, and R.Y. Wang, “Brushwood: Distributed Trees in Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), 2005.
[21] Y. Shu, B.C. Ooi, K.L. Tan, and A. Zhou, “Supporting Multi-Dimensional Range Queries in Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Proc. Fifth IEEE Int'l Conf. Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P), 2005.
[22] J. Aspnes, J. Kirsch, and A. Krishnamurthy, “Load Balancing and Locality in Range-Queriable Data Structures,” Proc. 23rd ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC '04), July 2004.
[23] P. Ganesan, M. Bawa, and H. Garcia-Molina, “Online Balancing of Range-Partitioned Data with Applications to Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Proc. 30th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB), 2004.
[24] O.D. Sahin, A. Gupta, D. Agrawal, and A.E. Abbadi, “A Peer-to-Peer Framework for Caching Range Queries,” Proc. 20th IEEE Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE '04), Apr. 2004.
[25] H.V. Jagadish, B.C. Ooi, Q.H. Vu, R. Zhang, and A. Zhou, “VBI-Tree: A Peer-to-Peer Framework for Supporting Multi-Dimensional Indexing Schemes,” Proc. 22nd IEEE Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE), 2006.
[26] L. Arge, D. Eppstein, and M.T. Goodrich, “Skip-webs: Efficient Distributed Data Structures for Multi-Dimensional Data Sets,” Proc. 24th ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2005.
[27] T. Asano, D. Ranjan, T. Roos, E. Welzl, and P. Widmaier, “Space Filling Curves and Their Use in Geometric Data Structures,” Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 181, pp. 3-15, 1997.
[28] J.L. Bentley, “Multidimensional Binary Search Trees Used for Associative Searching,” Comm. ACM, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 509-517, Sept. 1975.
[29] J.A. Orenstein and T.H. Merrett, “A Class of Data Structures for Associative Searching,” Proc. Third ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD Symp. Principles of Database Systems (PODS), 1984.
[30] J. Xu, A. Kumar, and X. Yu, “On the Fundamental Tradeoffs between Routing Table Size and Network Diameter in Peer-to-Peer Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2004.
[31] M. Schatzman, Numerical Analysis: A Mathematical Introduction. Clarendon Press, 2002.
[32] C. Tang, Z. Xu, and S. Dwarkadas, “Peer-to-Peer Information Retrieval Using Self-Organizing Semantic Overlay Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '03, Aug. 2003.
[33] B. Awerbuch and C. Scheideler, “Peer-to-Peer Systems for Prefix Search,” Proc. 22nd ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2003.
[34] H.T. Shen, Y.F. Shu, and B. Yu, “Efficient Semantic-Based Content Search in P2P Network,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 813-826, July 2004.
[35] X.C. Lu, H.M. Wang, and J. Wang, “Internet-Based Virtual Computing Environment (iVCE): Concepts and Architecture,” Science in China, Series F: Information Sciences, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 681-701, Dec. 2006.
[36] D.S. Li, J.N. Cao, X.C. Lu, K.C.C. Chan, B.S. Wang, J.S. Su, H.V. Leong, and A.T.S. Chan, “Delay-Bounded Range Queries in DHT-Based Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Proc. 26th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2006.
[37] G.S. Manku, “Balanced Binary Trees for ID Management and Load Balance in Distributed Hash Tables,” Proc. 23rd ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC '04), pp. 197-205, June 2004.
[38] P.B. Godfrey and I. Stoica, “Heterogeneity and Load Balance in Distributed Hash Tables,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, Mar. 2005.
[39] D. Karger and M. Ruhl, “Simple Efficient Load Balancing Algorithms for Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Theory of Computing Systems, vol. 39, pp. 787-804, Oct. 2006.