This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Watermarking Relational Databases Using Optimization-Based Techniques
January 2008 (vol. 20 no. 1)
pp. 116-129
Proving ownership rights on outsourced relational databases is a crucial issue in today internet-based application environment and in many content distribution applications. In this paper, we present a mechanism for proof of ownership based on the secure embedding of a robust imperceptible watermark in relational data. We formulate the watermarking of relational databases as a constrained optimization problem, and discuss efficient techniques to solve the optimization problem and to handle the constraints. Our watermarking technique is resilient to watermark synchronization errors because it uses a partitioning approach that does not require marker tuples. Our approach overcomes a major weakness in previously proposed watermarking techniques. Watermark decoding is based on a threshold-based technique characterized by an optimal threshold that minimizes the probability of decoding errors. We implemented a proof of concept implementation of our watermarking technique and showed by experimental results that our technique is resilient to tuple deletion, alteration and insertion attacks.

[1] R. Agrawal and J. Kiernan, “Watermarking Relational Databases,” Proc. 28th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, 2002.
[2] M. Atallah and S. Lonardi, “Authentication of LZ-77 Compressed Data,” Proc. ACM Symp. Applied Computing, 2003.
[3] M. Atallah, V. Raskin, C. Hempelman, M. Karahan, R. Sion, K. Triezenberg, and U. Topkara, “Natural Language Watermarking and Tamperproofing,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Information Hiding Workshop, 2002.
[4] G. Box, “Evolutionary Operation: A Method for Increasing Industrial Productivity,” Applied Statistics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 81-101, 1957.
[5] E. Chong and S. ak, An Introduction to Optimization. John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
[6] D. Coley, “Introduction to Genetic Algorithms for Scientists and Engineers,” World Scientific, 1999.
[7] C. Collberg and C. Thomborson, “Software Watermarking: Models and Dynamic Embeddings,” Proc. 26th ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symp. Principles of Programming Languages, Jan. 1999.
[8] I. Cox, J. Bloom, and M. Miller, Digital Watermarking. Morgan Kaufmann, 2001.
[9] E. Dolan, R. Lewis, and V. Torczon, “On the Local Convergence of Pattern Search,” SIAM J. Optimization, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 567-583, 2003.
[10] D. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithm in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. Addison-Wesley, 1989.
[11] D. Gross-Amblard, “Query-Preserving Watermarking of Relational Databases and XML Documents,” Proc. 22nd ACM SIGMOD-SIGACT-SIGART Symp. Principles of Database Systems (PODS '03), pp. 191-201, 2003.
[12] F. Hartung and M. Kutter, “Multimedia Watermarking Techniques,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1079-1107, July 1999.
[13] J. Holland, Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. The MIT Press, 1992.
[14] R. Hooke and T. Jeeves, “Direct Search Solution of Numerical and Statistical Problems,” J. Assoc. for Computing Machinery, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 212-229, 1961.
[15] G. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, and R. Lagendijk, “Watermarking Digital Image and Video Data: A State-of-the-Art Overview,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 20-46, Sept. 2000.
[16] R. Lewis and V. Torczon, “Pattern Search Methods for Linearly Constrained Minimization,” SIAM J. Optimization, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 917-941, 2000.
[17] Y. Li, H. Guo, and S. Jajodia, “Tamper Detection and Localization for Categorical Data Using Fragile Watermarks,” Proc. Fourth ACM Workshop Digital Rights Management (DRM '04), pp. 73-82, 2004.
[18] Y. Li, V. Swarup, and S. Jajodia, “Fingerprinting Relational Databases: Schemes and Specialties,” IEEE Trans. Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 34-45, Jan.-Mar. 2005.
[19] R. Morelos-Zaragoza, The Art of Error Correcting Coding. John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
[20] J. Nocedal and S. Wright, Numerical Optimization. Prentice Hall, 1999.
[21] F. Petitcolas, R. Anderson, and M. Kuhn, “Attacks on Copyright Marking Systems,” LNCS, vol. 1525, pp. 218-238, Apr. 1998.
[22] B. Schneier, Applied Cryptography. John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
[23] R. Sion, M. Atallah, and S. Prabhakar, “Rights Protection for Relational Data,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 16, no. 6, June 2004.
[24] M. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, and A. Tewfik, “Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 86, pp. 1064-1087, June 1998.
[25] L. Vaas, “Putting a Stop to Database Piracy,” eWEEK, Enterprise News and Revs., Sept. 2003.
[26] R. Wolfgang, C. Podilchuk, and E. Delp, “Perceptual Watermarks for Digital Images and Video,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, pp. 1108-1126, July 1999.

Index Terms:
Security and Privacy Protection, Optimization
Mohamed Shehab, Elisa Bertino, Arif Ghafoor, "Watermarking Relational Databases Using Optimization-Based Techniques," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 116-129, Jan. 2008, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2007.190668
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.