This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
On the Signature Tree Construction and Analysis
September 2006 (vol. 18 no. 9)
pp. 1207-1224
Advanced database application areas, such as computer aided design, office automation, digital libraries, data-mining, as well as hypertext and multimedia systems, need to handle complex data structures with set-valued attributes, which can be represented as bit strings, called signatures. A set of signatures can be stored in a file, called a signature file. In this paper, we propose a new method to organize a signature file into a tree structure, called a signature tree, to speed up the signature file scanning and query evaluation. In addition, the average time complexity of searching a signature tree is analyzed and how to maintain a signature tree on disk is discussed. We also conducted experiments, which show that the approach of signature trees provides a promising index structure.

[1] S. Abiteboul, S. Cluet, V. Christophides, T. Milo, G. Moerkotte, and J. Simeon, “Querying Documents in Object Databases,” Int'l J. Digital Libraries, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 5-19, Jan. 1997.
[2] A.V. Aho, J.E. Hopcroft, and J.D. Ullman, The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms. London: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1974.
[3] R. Bayer and K. Unterrauer, “Prefix B-Tree,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 11-26, 1977.
[4] W.W. Chang and H.J. Schek, “A Signature Access Method for the STARBURST Database System,” Proc. 19th Very Large Data Bases Conf., pp. 145-153, 1989.
[5] Y. Chen and Y.B. Chen, “Signature File Hierarchies and Signature Graphs: A New Indexing Method for Object-Oriented Datbases,” Proc. ACM Symp. Applied Computing (SAC '04), pp. 724-728, 2004.
[6] S. Christodoulakis and C. Faloutsos, “Design Consideration for a Message File Server,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 201-210, 1984.
[7] S. Christodoulakis, M. Theodoridou, F. Ho, M. Papa, and A. Pathria, “Multimedia Document Presentation, Information Extraction and Document Formation in MINOS— A Model and a System,” ACM Trans. Office Information Systems, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 345-386, 1986.
[8] R.V. Churchill, Operational Mathematics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1958.
[9] P. Ciaccia and P. Zezula, “Declustering of Key-Based Partitioned Signature Files,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 295-338, 1996.
[10] M. Crochemore and W. Rytter, Text Algorithms. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1994.
[11] U. Deppisch, “S-Tree: A Dynamic Balanced Signature Index for Office Retrieval,” Proc. ACM SIGIR Conf., pp. 77-87, Sept. 1986.
[12] D. Dervos, Y. Manolopulos, and P. Linardis, “Comparison of Signature File Models with Superimposed Coding,” J. Information Processing Letters 65, pp. 101-106, 1998.
[13] C. Faloutsos, “Access Methods for Text,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 49-74, 1985.
[14] C. Faloutsos and R. Chan, “Fast Text Access Methods for Optical and Large Magnetic Disks: Designs and Performance Comparison,” Proc. 14th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, pp. 280-293, Aug. 1988.
[15] C. Faloutsos, “Signature Files,” Information Retrieval: Data Structures & Algorithms, W.B. Frakes and R. Baeza-Yates, eds., pp. 44-65, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992.
[16] C. Faloutsos, R. Lee, C. Plaisant, and B. Shneiderman, “Incorporating String Search in Hypertext System: User Interface and Signature File Design Issues,” HyperMedia, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 183-200, 1990.
[17] P. Flajolet and C. Puech, “Partial Match Retrieval of Multidimentional Data,” J. ACM, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 371-407, Apr. 1986.
[18] D. Harman, E. Fox, and R. Baeza-Yates, “Inverted Files,” Information Retrieval: Data Structures & Algorithms, W.B. Frakes and R. Baeza-Yates, eds., pp. 28-43, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992.
[19] Y. Ishikawa, H. Kitagawa, and N. Ohbo, “Evaluation of Signature Files as Set Access Facilities in OODBs,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 247-256, May 1993.
[20] D.E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming: Sorting and Searching. London: Addison-Wesley Pub., 1973.
[21] A.J. Kent, R. Sacks-Davis, and K. Ramamohanarao, “A Signature File Scheme Based on Multiple Organizations for Indexing Very Large Text Databases,” J. Am. Soc. Information Science, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 508-534, 1990.
[22] S. Kocberber and F. Can, “Compressed Multi-Framed Signature Files: An Index Structure for Fast Information Retrieval,” Proc. ACM Symp. Applied Computing (SAC '99), pp. 221-226, 1999.
[23] D.L. Lun, Y.M. Kim, and G. Patel, “Efficient Signature File Methods for Text Retrieval,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 7, no. 3, June 1995.
[24] W. Lee and D.L. Lee, “Signature File Methods for Indexing Object-Oriented Database Systems,” Proc. ICIC '92— Second Int'l Conf. Data and Knowledge Eng.: Theory and Application, pp. 616-622, Dec. 1992.
[25] D.R. Morrison, “PATRICIA— Practical Algorithm To Retrieve Information Coded in Alphanumeric,” J. Assoc. for Computing Machinery, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 514-534, Oct. 1968.
[26] J. Riordan, Comninatorial Identities. New York: Wiley, 1968.
[27] E. Tousidou, A. Nanopoulos, and Y. Manolopoulos, “Improved Methods for Signature-Tree Construction,” Computer J., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 301-314, 2000.
[28] E. Tousidou, P. Bozanis, and Y. Manolopoulos, “Signature-Based Structures for Objects with Set-Values Attributes,” Infromation Systems, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 93-121, 2002.
[29] H.S. Yong, S. Lee, and H.J. Kim, “Applying Signatures for Forward Traversal Query Processing in Object-Oriented Databases,” Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 518-525, Feb. 1994.
[30] J. Zobel, A. Moffat, and K. Ramamohanarao, “Inverted Files Versus Signature Files for Text Indexing,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 453-490, Dec. 1998.

Index Terms:
Signature files, bit-slice files, S-trees, signature trees, information retrieval.
Citation:
Yibin Chen, Yangjun Chen, "On the Signature Tree Construction and Analysis," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1207-1224, Sept. 2006, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2006.146
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.