This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Dynamic Grouping Strategies Based on a Conceptual Graph for Cooperative Learning
June 2006 (vol. 18 no. 6)
pp. 738-747
In large classrooms, teachers rarely have time to monitor the status of individual students. As a result, students who learn quickly thoroughly grasp the content, while students who learn slowly fall further and further behind until, in some cases, the education system gives up on them completely. Teachers thus need a system to help them obtain the status of all students and manage particular students. This study proposes a novel learning process based on the conceptual graph, a knowledge representation tool. This study adopts cooperative learning to let students conduct further studies through interaction with each other. The proposed strategy acquires and measures the knowledge structure of students. According to the knowledge structure of individual students, this study proposes dynamic-grouping and partial-regrouping to identify suitable partners for students. The proposed strategy achieves the best complementary groups for further learning stages. Evaluation results indicate that the proposed method significantly improves the learning achievement of all learners. Additionally, the questionnaire results indicate that learners respond positively to the proposed grouping strategy.

[1] A. Asif, “Multimedia and Cooperative Learning in Signal Processing Techniques in Communications,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 278-281, 2004.
[2] A. Okada, H. Tarumi, and Y. Kambayashi, “Real-Time Quiz Functions for Dynamic Group Guidance in Distance Learning Systems,” Proc. First Int'l Conf. Web Information Systems Eng., vol. 2, pp. 188-195, 2000.
[3] A. Wald, Sequential Analysis. Wiley, 1947.
[4] B. Bowen and P. Kocura, “Implementing Conceptual Graphs in a RDBMS,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computational Science (ICCS '93), pp. 106-125, 1993.
[5] B.S. Jong, T.W. Lin, Y.L. Wu, and T.Y. Chan, “A Diagnostic and Remedial Learning Strategy Based on Conceptual Graph,” J. Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 20, pp. 377-386, 2004.
[6] C.C. Hwang and P.X. L, Cooperative Learning. Taipei, Taiwan: Wu-Nan Culture Enterprise, 1996.
[7] C.C. Tsai, S.S.J. Lin, and S.M. Yuan, “Students' Use of Web-Based Concept Map Testing and Strategies for Learning,” J. Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 72-84, 2001.
[8] C.L. Chung and C.H. Wang, “The Attitudinal Effects of Computerized Adaptive Testing Employing SPRT Mode,” Instructional Technology and Media, vol. 58, pp. 13-25, 2001.
[9] C.T. Sun and C. Chou, “Experiencing CORAL: Design and Implementation of Distant Cooperative Learning,” IEEE Trans. Education, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 357-366, 1996.
[10] D.W. Johnson and R.T. Johnson, Cooperation and Competition: Theory and Research. Edina, Minn.: Interaction Book Co., 1989.
[11] D.W. Johnson and R.T. Johnson, Learning Together and Alone: Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Learning, 5/E. N.J.: Allyn and Bacon, 1999.
[12] E. Aronson and S. Patnoe, The Jigsaw Classroom: Building Cooperation in the Classroom, second ed. Addison Wesley Longman, 1997.
[13] G.J. Hwang, “A Tutoring Strategy Supporting System for Distance Learning on Computer Networks,” IEEE Trans. Education, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 343-351, 1998.
[14] G.J. Hwang, “A Conceptual Map Model for Developing Intelligent Tutoring Systems,” Computers and Education, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 217-235, 2002.
[15] J.D. Novak and D.B. Go, Learning How To Learn. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1984.
[16] J.F. Sowa, “Conceptual Graphs for a Data Base Interface,” IBM J. Research and Development, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 336-357, 1976.
[17] J.R. McClure, B. Sonak, and H.K. Suen, “Concept Map Assessment of Classroom Learning: Reliability, Validity, and Logistical Practicality,” J. Research in Science Teaching, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 475-492, 1999.
[18] J.W. Bruce, J.C. Harden, and R.B. Reese, “Cooperative and Progressive Design Experience for Embedded Systems,” IEEE Trans. Education, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 83-92, 2004.
[19] J.Y. Chang and H.L. Chen, “Dynamic-Grouping Bandwidth Reservation Scheme for Multimedia Wireless Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1566-1574, 2003.
[20] N.M. Webb, “Group Composition, Group Interaction, and Achievement in Cooperative Small Group,” J. Educational Psychology, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 642-655, 1982.
[21] N.M. Webb, “Stability of Small Group Interaction and Achievement Over Time,” Am. Psychological Assoc., vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 211-224, 1984.
[22] T.E. Goldsmith and D.M. Davenport, “Assessing Structural Similarity of Graphs,” Pathfinder Associative Network: Studies in Knowledge Organization, pp. 75-87, 1989.
[23] T.E. Goldsmith and P.J. Johnson, “A Structural Assessment of Classroom Learning,” Pathfinder Associative Network: Studies in Knowledge Organization, pp. 241-254, 1989.
[24] T.E. Goldsmith, P.J. Johnson, and W.H. Acton, “Assessing Structural Knowledge,” J. Educational Psychology, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 88-96, 1991.
[25] T.K. Landauer, P.W. Foltz, and D. Laham, “Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis,” Discourse Processes, vol. 25, pp. 259-284, 1998.
[26] T.W. Frick, “Bayesian Adaptation During Computer-Based Tests and Computer-Guided Practice Exercises,” J. Educational Computing Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 89-114, 1989.
[27] W.S. Hwang, J.J. Weng, M. Fang, and J. Qian, “A Fast Image Retrieval Algorithm with Automatically Extracted Discriminant Features,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Content-Based Access of Image and Video Libraries, pp. 8-12, 1999.
[28] Y.L. Wu, B.S. Jong, and T.W. Lin, “Learning Environment and Learning Activities with Chemistry and Physics Laboratory on the Web,” Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. Intelligent Systems on Emerging Technologies, pp. 114-119, 2002.

Index Terms:
Cooperative learning, conceptual graph, grouping strategies.
Citation:
BinShyan Jong, YuLung Wu, TeYi Chan, "Dynamic Grouping Strategies Based on a Conceptual Graph for Cooperative Learning," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 738-747, June 2006, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2006.93
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.