This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Steganographic Schemes for File System and B-Tree
June 2004 (vol. 16 no. 6)
pp. 701-713

Abstract—While user access control and encryption can protect valuable data from passive observers, these techniques leave visible ciphertexts that are likely to alert an active adversary to the existence of the data. This paper introduces StegFD, a steganographic file driver that securely hides user-selected files in a file system so that, without the corresponding access keys, an attacker would not be able to deduce their existence. Unlike other steganographic schemes proposed previously, our construction satisfies the prerequisites of a practical file system in ensuring the integrity of the files and maintaining efficient space utilization. We also propose two schemes for implementing steganographic B-trees within a StegFD volume. We have completed an implementation on Linux, and results of the experiment confirm that StegFD achieves an order of magnitude improvements in performance and/or space utilization over the existing schemes.

[1] Drivecrypt Secure Hard Disk Encryption,http:/www.securstar. com, Mar. 2004.
[2] E4m Disk Encryption,http:/, June 2003.
[3] Encrypting File System (efs) for Windows 2000,http://www. howitworks/security encrypt.asp , Mar. 2004.
[4] Pgpdisk,, Mar. 2004.
[5] Advanced Encryption Standard. Nat'l Inst. of Science and Technology, FIPS 197, 2001.
[6] Secure Hashing Algorithm. Nat'l Inst. of Science and Technology, FIPS 180-2, 2001.
[7] R. Anderson, R. Needham, and A. Shamir, The Steganographic File System Proc. Information Hiding, Second Int'l Workshop, D. Aucsmith, ed., Apr. 1998.
[8] R. Card, T. Ts'o, and S. Tweedie, Design and Implementation of the Second Extended Filesystem Proc. First Dutch Int'l Symp. Linux, 1995.
[9] M. Chapman and G. Davida, Information and Communications Security First Int'l Conf., Nov. 1997.
[10] S. Hand and T. Roscoe, Mnemosyne: Peer-to-Peer Steganographic Storage Electronic Proc. First Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '02), Mar. 2002, .
[11] F. Hartung, J.K. Su, and B. Girod, Digital Watermarking for Compressed Video Multimedia and Security Workshop at ACM Multimedia '98, Sept. 1998.
[12] N.F. Johnson and S. Jajodia, Exploring Steganography: Seeing the Unseen Computer, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 26-34, Feb. 1998.
[13] A.D. McDonald and M.G. Kuhn, Stegfs: A Steganographic File System for Linux Proc. Workshop Information Hiding, (IHW '99), Sept. 1999.
[14] W.S. Ng, B.C. Ooi, and K.L. Tan, Bestpeer: A Self-Configurable Peer-to-Peer System Proc. 18th Int'l Conf. Data Eng., p. 272, Apr. 2002. (Poster Paper).
[15] H. Pang, K.L. Tan, and X. Zhou, StegFS: A Steganographic File System Proc. 19th Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 657-668, Mar. 2003.
[16] M.O. Rabin, Efficient Dispersal of Information for Security, Load Balancing, and Fault Tolerance J. ACM, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 335-348, Apr. 1989.
[17] R.L. Rivest, RFC 1321: The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm. Internet Activities Board, 1992.
[18] G. Simmons, The Prisoners' Problem and the Subliminal Channel Proc. CRYPTO '83 Conf.,, pp. 51-67, 1984.
[19] M.D. Swanson, B. Zhu, and A.H. Tewfik, Audio Watermarking and Data Embedding Current State of the Art, Challenges and Future Directions Proc. Multimedia and Security Workshop at ACM Multimedia '98, Sept. 1998.
[20] A.S. Tanenbaum and A.S. Woodhul, Operating Systems: Design and Implementation, second ed. Prentice Hall, 1997.
[21] Y. Yang, F. Bao, and R. Deng, Improving and Cryptanalysis of a Key Recovery System Proc. 2002 Australasian Conf. Information Security and Privacy, pp. 17-24, 2002.

Index Terms:
Steganography, plausible deniability, security, access control, StegFD, StegBtree.
HweeHwa Pang, Kian-Lee Tan, Xuan Zhou, "Steganographic Schemes for File System and B-Tree," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 701-713, June 2004, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2004.15
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.