This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
A Scalable Low-Latency Cache Invalidation Strategy for Mobile Environments
September/October 2003 (vol. 15 no. 5)
pp. 1251-1265

Abstract—Caching frequently accessed data items on the client side is an effective technique for improving performance in a mobile environment. Classical cache invalidation strategies are not suitable for mobile environments due to frequent disconnections and mobility of the clients. One attractive cache invalidation technique is based on invalidation reports (IRs). However, the IR-based cache invalidation solution has two major drawbacks, which have not been addressed in previous research. First, there is a long query latency associated with this solution since a client cannot answer the query until the next IR interval. Second, when the server updates a hot data item, all clients have to query the server and get the data from the server separately, which wastes a large amount of bandwidth. In this paper, we propose an IR-based cache invalidation algorithm, which can significantly reduce the query latency and efficiently utilize the broadcast bandwidth. Detailed analytical analysis and simulation experiments are carried out to evaluate the proposed methodology. Compared to previous IR-based schemes, our scheme can significantly improve the throughput and reduce the query latency, the number of uplink request, and the broadcast bandwidth requirements.

[1] R. Thakur and A. Choudhary, "All-to-All Communication on Meshes with Wormhole Routing," Proc. Eighth Int'l Parallel Processing Symp., pp. 561-565, Apr. 1994.
[2] S. Acharya, M. Franklin, and S. Zdonik, “Disseminating Updated on Broadcast Disks,” Proc. 22nd VLDB Conf., pp. 354-365, Sept. 1996.
[3] D. Barbara and T. Imielinski, “Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD, pp. 1-12, May 1994.
[4] H. Berenson, P. Bernstein, J. Gray, J. Melton, and B. O'Neil, A Critique of ANSI SQL Isolation Levels Proc. ACM SIGMOD, June 1995.
[5] U. Cetintemel, M. Franklin, and C. Giles, Self-Adaptive User Profiles for Large-Scale Data Delivery Proc. Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 622-633, 2000.
[6] M. Cherniack, M. Franklin, and S. Zdonik, “Expressing User Profiles for Data Recharging,” IEEE Personal Comm., pp. 6-12, Aug. 2001.
[7] A. Datta, D. Vandermeer, A. Celik, and V. Kumar, “Broadcast Protocols to Support Efficient Retrieval from Databases by Mobile Users,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1-79, Mar. 1999.
[8] Wireless LAN Media Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, The editors of IEEE 802.11, 802.11 Wireless Standards (, 1999.
[9] G.H. Forman and J. Zahorjan, “The Challenges of Mobile Computing,” Computer, pp. 38-47, Apr. 1994.
[10] M. Franklin, Client Data Caching: A Foundation for High Performance Object Database Systems. Kluwer Academic, 1996.
[11] D.J. Goodman, Cellular Packet Communication IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1272-1280, Aug. 1990.
[12] Q. Hu and D.K. Lee, “Cache Algorithms Based on Adaptive Invalidation Reports for Mobile Environments,” Cluster Computing, vol. 1, pp. 39-50, 1998.
[13] T. Imielinski, S. Viswanathan, and B.R. Badrinath, “Energy Efficient Indexing on Air,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., pp. 25-36, May 1994.
[14] T. Imielinski, S. Viswanathan, and B.R. Badrinath, Data on Air: Organization and Access IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 353-372, June 1997.
[15] Z. Jiang and L. Kleinrock, “An Adaptive Network Prefetch Scheme,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1-11, Apr. 1998.
[16] J. Jing, A. Elmagarmid, A. Helal, and R. Alonso, “Bit-Sequences: An Adaptive Cache Invalidation Method in Mobile Client/Server Environments,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 2, pp. 115-127, 1997.
[17] A. Joshi, On Proxy Agents, Mobility, and Web Access Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 233-241, Dec. 2000.
[18] A. Kahol, S. Khurana, S. Gupta, and P. Srimani, An Efficient Cache Management Scheme for Mobile Environment Proc. 20th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 530-537, Apr. 2000.
[19] M. Kazar, Synchronization and Caching Issues in the Andrew File System Proc. USENIX Conf., pp. 27-36, 1988.
[20] H. Korth, “The Double Life of the Transaction Abstraction: Fundamental Principle and Evolving System Concept,” Proc. Very Large Data Base Conf. (VLDB), Sept. 1995.
[21] G. Cao, Proactive Power-Aware Cache Management for Mobile Computing Systems IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 608-621, 2002.
[22] E. Levy and A. Silbershatz, "Distributed File Systems: Concepts and Examples," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 22, no. 4, Dec. 1990.
[23] B. Nitzberg and V. Lo, "Distributed Shared Memory: A Survey of Issues and Algorithms," Computer, vol. 24, no. 8, Aug. 1991.
[24] V. Padmanabhan and J. Mogul, Using Predictive Prefetching to Improve World Wide Web Latency ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 26, no. 3, July 1996.
[25] R.A. Powers, “Batteries for Low-Power Electronics,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 83, pp. 687-693, 1995.
[26] S. Sandberg, D. Goldberg, S. Kleiman, D. Walsh, and B. Lyon, Design and Implementation of the Sun Network File System Proc. USENIX Summer Conf., pp. 119-130, June 1985.
[27] K. Stathatos, N. Roussopoulos, and J.S. Baras, “Adaptive Data Broadcast in Hybrid Networks,” Proc. 23rd Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, pp. 326-335, 1997.
[28] N.H. Vaidya and S. Hameed, “Scheduling Data Broadcast in Asymmetric Communication Environments,” J. Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 5, pp. 171-182, 1999.
[29] K.L. Wu, P.S. Yu, and M.S. Chen, “Energy-Efficient Caching for Wireless Mobile Computing, Proc. 20th Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 336-345, Mar. 1996.
[30] J. Yuen, E. Chan, K. Lam, and H. Leung, An Adaptive AVI-Based Cache Invalidation Scheme for Mobile Computing Systems Proc. Third Int'l Workshop on Mobility in Databases and Distributed Systems, Sept. 2000.
[31] J. Yuen, E. Chan, K. Lam, and H. Leung, “Cache Invalidation Scheme for Mobile Computing Systems with Real-Time Data,” ACM SIGMOD Record, Dec. 2000.

Index Terms:
Invalidation report, latency, caching, power conservation, mobile computing.
Guohong Cao, "A Scalable Low-Latency Cache Invalidation Strategy for Mobile Environments," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1251-1265, Sept.-Oct. 2003, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2003.1232276
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.